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Radiographic Positioning > PowerPoint Two > Flashcards

Flashcards in PowerPoint Two Deck (45):
1

Medial rotation

A rotation or turning of a body part with movement of the anterior aspect of the part toward the *inside,* or median plane

2

Lateral rotation

A rotation or turning of a body part with movement of the anterior aspect of the part toward the *outside,* or away from the median plane

3

Abduct or abduction

Movement of a part *away* from the central axis of the body or body part

4

Adduct or adduction

Movement of a part *toward* the central axis of the body or body part

5

Pronate/pronation

rotation of the forearm so that the palm is down.

6

Supinate/supination

rotation of the forearm so that the palm is up (in the anatomic position)

7

Protraction

movement forward from a normal position. For example: the mandible.

8

Retraction

movement backward or the condition of being drawn back. For example: the mandible.

9

Elevation

Lifting, raising, or moving of a part superiorly

10

Depression

letting down or lowering or moving of a part inferiorly

11

Circumduction

Circular movement of a limb.

12

Radiographic Criteria

The definable standard that radiographs are evaluated by.

13

Radiographic criteria format

Structures shown, positioning, collimation and CR, exposure criteria and image markers.

14

"Stuctures shown" from Radiographic Criteria

The anatomic parts and structures visualized on a radiograph

15

"Postitioning" from Radiographic Criteria

Placement of body part in relationship to IR
and positioning factors important for projection.

16

"Collimation and CR" from Radiographic Criteria

Decribes how collimation borders should be seen
Location of CR
Center of collimation

17

"Exposure criteria" from Radiographic Criteria

Describes how technique can be evaluated for optimum exposure of body part
Motion

18

"Image Markers," from Radiographic Criteria

Patient side markers (R or L)
Time markers (as needed)

19

Essential IR markers

Anatomic side markers (R or L) and patient ID marker.

20

Basic (routine) projections

Commonly performed projections taken in US and Canada on all average patients who can cooperate fully
Actual routines vary depending on radiologist’s preference and imaging department

21

Special (Alternative) projections

Sometimes taken in addition to basic projections
Are those projections most commonly taken to better demonstrate specific anatomic parts or certain pathologic conditions

22

Two positioning rules or principles

Minimum of two projections
Anatomic structures superimposed
Localization of lesions or foreign bodies
Determination of alignment of fractures

23

Second postioning rule

Minimum of three projections when joints are in prime interest area
AP or PA
Lateral
Oblique

24

Examples of exams needing three projections as basic:

Fingers
Toes
Hand
Wrist
Elbow
Ankle
Foot
Knee

25

Long bones require two projections as basic. Examples are:

Forearm
Humerus
Femur
Hips
Tibia-fibula
Chest

26

Exceptions to positioning rules are:

Post reduction upper and lower limbs
Pelvis study projection unless a hip injury is suspected.
Abdomen (KUB)

27

Define palpation:

Refers to process of applying light pressure with fingertips directly on patient to locate landmarks.

28

How is palpation done?

Gently, patient must be informed of the purpose of it, and permission must be acquired.

29

How are radiographic imaged viewed?

Whichever way the radiologist chooses, however they are usually viewed with the patient in the anatomic position.

30

How is an AP chest projection viewed?

With the patient in the anatomic position.

31

How is a PA chest projection viewed?

With the patient in the anatomic position.

32

How's re lateral projections viewed?

By the side closest to the IR.

33

How are AP and PA oblique projections viewed?

With the patient in the anatomical position.

34

How are decubitus chest and abdomen projections viewed?

From the "viewpoint" of the X-ray tube.

35

How are projections of upper and lower limbs viewed?

From the "viewpoint" of the X-ray tube; if there are digits, they are placed up. If no digits are shown, then it's viewed in the anatomical position.

36

How are MRI and CT's viewed?

Axial projections are generally viewed with the patient's right on the viewer's left.

37

Describe exposure factors (technique).

Radiographer sets three exposure variables or factors on the control panel of the x-ray machine each time a radiographic image is produced. These factors are sometimes referred to as “exposure” or “technique factors."

38

The three technique factors are:

1.Kilovoltage (kV)
2.Milliamperage (mA)
3.Exposure time (seconds)

39

Describe milliamperage seconds (mAs)

Milliamperage (mA) and time (s) are usually combined into milliamperage seconds (mAs), which determine the quantity or amount of x-rays emitted from the x-ray tube each time n exposure is made. Milliamperage determines the amount of blackness or density.

40

What are the rules for changing the density?

When film images are underexposed or over exposed, a genera rule states that a minimum change in mAs of 25% to 30% is required to make a visible difference. A greater change may be required, frequently 50% to 100%.

41

Automatic exposure control (AEC):

A system that provides automatic termination of exposure time when sufficient exposure is received by the selected ionization chamber cell.

42

Contrast:

the difference in density on adjacent areas of a radiographic image. The greater the difference, the higher the contrast.

43

What is the primary controlling factor for contrast?

Kilovolts. Kv controls the energy or penetrating power of the primary x-ray beam.

44

Example technique showing short scale, high contrast (for chest).

50kV(800 mAs). Very black and white.

45

Example technique showing long scale, low contrast (for chest).

110 kV(20mAs). Many shades of grey.