M: Foot Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Term 2 C&M > M: Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in M: Foot Deck (56)
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1
Q

Which lies more medial in the foot, the cuboid or the navicular?

A

The navicular

2
Q

What type of joint is the ankle joint?

A

Hinge type synovial joint between the distal tibia and fibula and the talus

3
Q

What movements are possible at the ankle joint?

A

Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and limited inversion and eversion

4
Q

What is the subtalar joint formed by?

A

Formed by the talus and calcaneus bones

5
Q

What 2 articulations is the transverse talar joint formed by?

A

Articulation between the calcaneus and cuboid bone and an articulation between the navicular and talus bone

6
Q

What movements are possible at the subtalar joint?

A

Gliding and rotation

ie. Involved in inversion and eversion

7
Q

What is the main function of the transverse and longitudinal arches of the foot?

A

Act as shock absorbers and are important in the weight bearing function of the foot

8
Q

Which 4 ligaments support the arches of the foot?

A

1) Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament)
2) Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short ligament)
3) Long plantar ligament
4) Plantar aponeurosis

9
Q

What 3 muscles provide dynamic support for the arches of the foot during walking?

A

1) Tibialis anterior
2) Tibialis posterior
3) Fibularis longus

10
Q

What is pes planus?

A

Loss of medial longitudinal arch of the foot resulting in relative flattening of the plantar surface

11
Q

Which 2 intrinsic muscles of the foot are located on the dorsum of the foot?

A

1) Extensor hallucis brevis

2) Extensor digitorum brevis

12
Q

Is extensor hallucis brevis always considered a muscle in its own right?

A

No, some consider it to be part of extensor digitorum brevis

13
Q

What are the attachments of extensor digitorum brevis?

A
Origin = superolateral surface of calcaneus
Insertion = Lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes 2-5
14
Q

What are the attachments of extensor hallucis brevis?

A
Origin = superolateral surface of the calcaneus
Insertion = Base of proximal phalynx of great toe
15
Q

What is the function of extensor digitorum brevis?

A

Extension of toes 2-5

16
Q

What is the function of extensor hallucis brevis?

A

Extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe

17
Q

What is the innervation of extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis?

A

Deep fibular nerve S1,S2

18
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin on medial side of proximal foot?

A

Saphenous nerve which is a cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve originating in the thigh

19
Q

What nerve supplies the skin of most of dorsum of the foot except adjacent sides of toes 1 and 2 and skin on lateral side of little toe and foot?

A

Superficial fibular nerve

20
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin on the lateral side of the foot and the dorsolateral surface of the little toe?

A

Sural nerve which is a cutaneous branch of the tibial nerve originating high in the leg

21
Q

The majority of the intrinsic muscles of the plantar surface of the foot are located in how many layers?

A

4

22
Q

The most superficial layer of intrinsic muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 3 muscles?

A

1) Flexor digitorum brevis
2) Abductor hallucis
3) Abductor digiti minimi

23
Q

What are the attachments of flexor digitorum brevis?

A
Origin = medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis
Insertion = plantar surface of middle phalanges of lateral 4 toes
24
Q

What is the 1 action of flexor digitorum brevis?

A

Flexes lateral 4 toes at proximal interphalangeal joint

25
Q

What are the attachments of abductor hallucis?

A
Origin = medial process of calcaneal tuberosity
Insertion = medial side of proximal phalynx of great toe
26
Q

What are the 2 action of abductor hallucis?

A

1) Flexes and

2) Abducts great toe at metatarsophalangeal joint

27
Q

What are the attachments of abductor digiti minimi?

A
Origin = lateral and medial processes of calcaneal tuberosity and band of connective tissue connecting calcaneus with base of metatarsal 5
Insertion = lateral side of base of proximal phalynx of little toe
28
Q

What is the action of abductor digiti minimi?

A

Abducts little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint

29
Q

What has to be reflected in order to view the most superficial layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot?

A

The plantar aponeurosis

30
Q

What are the attachments of the plantar aponeurosis?

A

Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity then diverges to form 5 digital processes which then enter the toes

31
Q

What are the 2 functions of the plantar aponeurosis?

A

1) Supports the longitudinal arch of the foot

2) Protects deeper structures in the sole

32
Q

The second most superficial layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 2 muscles?

A

1) Quadratus plantae

2) Lumbricals

33
Q

The second layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot also contains the tendons of which 2 extrinsic muscles of the foot?

A

Tendons of:

1) Flexor hallucis longus
2) Flexor digitorum longus

34
Q

What are the attachments of quadratus plantae?

A
Origin = medial surface of calcaneus and lateral process of calcaneal tuberosity 
Insertion = lateral side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus in proximal sole of foot
35
Q

What is the function of quadratus plantae?

A

Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing toes 2-5

36
Q

The third layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 3 muscles?

A

1) Flexor hallucis brevis
2) Flexor digiti minimi brevis
3) Adductor hallucis (transverse and oblique head)

37
Q

The fourth and deepest layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains which 2 sets of muscles?

A

1) Dorsal interossei

2) Plantar interossei

38
Q

How many dorsal interossei are in the foot?

A

4

39
Q

How many plantar interossei are there in the foot?

A

3

40
Q

The plantar and dorsal interossei are attached to and occupy the space between which bone?

A

The metatarsal bones

41
Q

What is the function of the dorsal and plantar interossei?

A

PAD DAB
Palmar adduct the toes
Dorsal abduct the toes

42
Q

Which is the major sensory nerve to the sole of the foot?

A

Medial plantar nerve

43
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin of lateral 1.5 toes (both on dorsal and plantar surface) and adjacent mid foot region of sole?

A

Lateral plantar nerve

44
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin of the heel?

A

Tibial nerve

45
Q

All muscles in the plantar surface of the foot are innervated by what 2 nerves?

A

Medial or lateral plantar nerves from the tibial nerve

46
Q

Which 2 muscles of the plantar surface of the foot receive some innervation from the deep fibular nerve?

A

1st and 2nd dorsal interossei

47
Q

What are the 2 main arteries supplying blood to the foot, what are they branches of?

A

Dorsum of the foot = dorsalis pedis artery which is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery
Plantar surface of the foot = lateral plantar artery which is a terminal branch of posterior tibial artery

48
Q

Which 2 arteries anastamose to form the deep plantar arch of the foot?

A

Deep plantar artery (branch of dorsalis pedis artery)

and lateral plantar artery

49
Q

Between which toes does the deep plantar artery pass to enter the plantar surface of the foot where it contributes to the deep plantar arch?

A

1st and 2nd toes

50
Q

The posterior tibial artery bifurcates to form which 2 terminal branches on the plantar surface of the foot?

A

Medial and lateral plantar arteries

51
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin of medial 3.5 digits (on dorsal and plantar surface) and adjacent mid region of sole of foot?

A

Medial plantar nerve

52
Q

Sural nerve supplies skin of what part of the foot?

A

Strip on the lateral side

53
Q

The sural nerve is a branch of what?

A

Cutaneous branch of the tibial nerve originating in the leg

54
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin of the medial leg?

A

Saphenous nerve - cutaneous branch of femoral nerve

55
Q

Which nerve supplies the skin of the first web space on the dorsum of the foot?

A

The deep fibular nerve

56
Q

Which nerve supplies the majority of the skin on the dorsum of the foot?

A

The superficial fibular nerve