Flashcards in M: Foot Deck (56):
Which lies more medial in the foot, the cuboid or the navicular?
What type of joint is the ankle joint?
Hinge type synovial joint between the distal tibia and fibula and the talus
What movements are possible at the ankle joint?
Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and limited inversion and eversion
What is the subtalar joint formed by?
Formed by the talus and calcaneus bones
What 2 articulations is the transverse talar joint formed by?
Articulation between the calcaneus and cuboid bone and an articulation between the navicular and talus bone
What movements are possible at the subtalar joint?
Gliding and rotation
ie. Involved in inversion and eversion
What is the main function of the transverse and longitudinal arches of the foot?
Act as shock absorbers and are important in the weight bearing function of the foot
Which 4 ligaments support the arches of the foot?
1) Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament)
2) Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short ligament)
3) Long plantar ligament
4) Plantar aponeurosis
What 3 muscles provide dynamic support for the arches of the foot during walking?
1) Tibialis anterior
2) Tibialis posterior
3) Fibularis longus
What is pes planus?
Loss of medial longitudinal arch of the foot resulting in relative flattening of the plantar surface
Which 2 intrinsic muscles of the foot are located on the dorsum of the foot?
1) Extensor hallucis brevis
2) Extensor digitorum brevis
Is extensor hallucis brevis always considered a muscle in its own right?
No, some consider it to be part of extensor digitorum brevis
What are the attachments of extensor digitorum brevis?
Origin = superolateral surface of calcaneus
Insertion = Lateral sides of the tendons of extensor digitorum longus of toes 2-5
What are the attachments of extensor hallucis brevis?
Origin = superolateral surface of the calcaneus
Insertion = Base of proximal phalynx of great toe
What is the function of extensor digitorum brevis?
Extension of toes 2-5
What is the function of extensor hallucis brevis?
Extension of metatarsophalangeal joint of great toe
What is the innervation of extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis?
Deep fibular nerve S1,S2
Which nerve supplies the skin on medial side of proximal foot?
Saphenous nerve which is a cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve originating in the thigh
What nerve supplies the skin of most of dorsum of the foot except adjacent sides of toes 1 and 2 and skin on lateral side of little toe and foot?
Superficial fibular nerve
Which nerve supplies the skin on the lateral side of the foot and the dorsolateral surface of the little toe?
Sural nerve which is a cutaneous branch of the tibial nerve originating high in the leg
The majority of the intrinsic muscles of the plantar surface of the foot are located in how many layers?
The most superficial layer of intrinsic muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 3 muscles?
1) Flexor digitorum brevis
2) Abductor hallucis
3) Abductor digiti minimi
What are the attachments of flexor digitorum brevis?
Origin = medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis
Insertion = plantar surface of middle phalanges of lateral 4 toes
What is the 1 action of flexor digitorum brevis?
Flexes lateral 4 toes at proximal interphalangeal joint
What are the attachments of abductor hallucis?
Origin = medial process of calcaneal tuberosity
Insertion = medial side of proximal phalynx of great toe
What are the 2 action of abductor hallucis?
1) Flexes and
2) Abducts great toe at metatarsophalangeal joint
What are the attachments of abductor digiti minimi?
Origin = lateral and medial processes of calcaneal tuberosity and band of connective tissue connecting calcaneus with base of metatarsal 5
Insertion = lateral side of base of proximal phalynx of little toe
What is the action of abductor digiti minimi?
Abducts little toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint
What has to be reflected in order to view the most superficial layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot?
The plantar aponeurosis
What are the attachments of the plantar aponeurosis?
Medial process of calcaneal tuberosity then diverges to form 5 digital processes which then enter the toes
What are the 2 functions of the plantar aponeurosis?
1) Supports the longitudinal arch of the foot
2) Protects deeper structures in the sole
The second most superficial layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 2 muscles?
1) Quadratus plantae
The second layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot also contains the tendons of which 2 extrinsic muscles of the foot?
1) Flexor hallucis longus
2) Flexor digitorum longus
What are the attachments of quadratus plantae?
Origin = medial surface of calcaneus and lateral process of calcaneal tuberosity
Insertion = lateral side of tendon of flexor digitorum longus in proximal sole of foot
What is the function of quadratus plantae?
Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing toes 2-5
The third layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains what 3 muscles?
1) Flexor hallucis brevis
2) Flexor digiti minimi brevis
3) Adductor hallucis (transverse and oblique head)
The fourth and deepest layer of muscles in the plantar surface of the foot contains which 2 sets of muscles?
1) Dorsal interossei
2) Plantar interossei
How many dorsal interossei are in the foot?
How many plantar interossei are there in the foot?
The plantar and dorsal interossei are attached to and occupy the space between which bone?
The metatarsal bones
What is the function of the dorsal and plantar interossei?
Palmar adduct the toes
Dorsal abduct the toes
Which is the major sensory nerve to the sole of the foot?
Medial plantar nerve
Which nerve supplies the skin of lateral 1.5 toes (both on dorsal and plantar surface) and adjacent mid foot region of sole?
Lateral plantar nerve
Which nerve supplies the skin of the heel?
All muscles in the plantar surface of the foot are innervated by what 2 nerves?
Medial or lateral plantar nerves from the tibial nerve
Which 2 muscles of the plantar surface of the foot receive some innervation from the deep fibular nerve?
1st and 2nd dorsal interossei
What are the 2 main arteries supplying blood to the foot, what are they branches of?
Dorsum of the foot = dorsalis pedis artery which is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery
Plantar surface of the foot = lateral plantar artery which is a terminal branch of posterior tibial artery
Which 2 arteries anastamose to form the deep plantar arch of the foot?
Deep plantar artery (branch of dorsalis pedis artery)
and lateral plantar artery
Between which toes does the deep plantar artery pass to enter the plantar surface of the foot where it contributes to the deep plantar arch?
1st and 2nd toes
The posterior tibial artery bifurcates to form which 2 terminal branches on the plantar surface of the foot?
Medial and lateral plantar arteries
Which nerve supplies the skin of medial 3.5 digits (on dorsal and plantar surface) and adjacent mid region of sole of foot?
Medial plantar nerve
Sural nerve supplies skin of what part of the foot?
Strip on the lateral side
The sural nerve is a branch of what?
Cutaneous branch of the tibial nerve originating in the leg
Which nerve supplies the skin of the medial leg?
Saphenous nerve - cutaneous branch of femoral nerve
Which nerve supplies the skin of the first web space on the dorsum of the foot?
The deep fibular nerve