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Year 2 Term 2 C&M > Descending motor pathways > Flashcards

Flashcards in Descending motor pathways Deck (31):
1

Lower motor neuron lesions has what 5 clinical effects?

1) Muscle wasting (Atrophy as not stimulated)
2) Muscle weakness/ reduced power
3) Hypotonia - reduced resting muscle tone
4) Absent tendon reflexes
5) Fasciculation/ fibrillation

2

What are the 3 roles of UMNs?

1) Influence LMN activity
2) Modify local reflex activity
3) Superimpose more complex patterns of movement

3

Other than corticospinal/corticobulbar, what are the 3 other motor pathways?

1) Reticulospinal
2) Vestibulospinal
3) Rebrospinal

4

Corticospinal pathway is mainly involved in what movement?

Voluntary fine precision movements

5

What are the initial effects of selective damage to the corticospinal pathway? 2

1) Flaccid paralysis of contralateral limbs
2) Loss of tendon reflexes

6

After several days following selective damage to the corticospinal tract and initial paralysis what occurs?

Motor function recovers but with hypertonia

7

What are the 3 long terms effects of selective damage to the corticospinal pathway?

1) Spasticity
2) Hypereflexia
3) Permanent inability to carry out fine movements of hands and feet

8

Corticobulbar fibres go from where to where?

Pre central gyrus to cranial nerve nuclei

9

Cranial nerve motor nuclei are located where within the brainstem?

The floor of the 4th ventricle (pons)

10

Corticobulbar fibres travel from the pre central gyrus to the cranial nerve nuclei via what?

Genu of the internal capsule

11

Corticospinal fibres travel from where to where?

Pre central gyrus to the ventral grey horn of the spinal cord

12

Are corticospinal and corticobulbar fibres UMNs or LMNs?

UMNs

13

Are cranial nerves UMNs or LMNs?

LMNs

14

Corticospinal fibres pass from pre central gyrus to brain stem via what?

Posterior limb of internal capsule

15

What is the root of corticospinal fibres to the ventral grey horn?

From pre central gyrus via posterior limb of internal capsule
Descend through cerebral peduncles and ventral pons to pyramids
85% of fibres decussate at pyramids and descend through spinal cord in contralateral lateral corticospinal tract
15% of fibres descend in ipsilateral pyramids and ipsilateral anterior corticospinal tract through spinal cord

16

The right pre central gyrus controls which side of the body?

The left

17

Where do corticospinal neurones decussate?

85% within the medulla at decussation of pyramids
15% at level of exit through the spinal cord via the anterior white commissure

18

Where do corticospinal neurones and LMNs synapse?

Contralateral ventral grey horn

19

Where do corticospinal fibres descend within the spinal cord?

85% in contralateral lateral corticospinal tract
15% in ipsilateral anterior corticospinal tract

20

The posterior limb of the internal capsule is somatotypically mapped, which lies most posterior, the arm of leg?

leg most posteriorly
(Arm most anteriorly and trunk in the middle)

21

The cerebral peduncles are somatotypically mapped, which part of the body lies closest to the interpeduncular fossa and which furthest away?

Leg furthest away
Then trunk then arm
Then face closest to interpeduncular fossa

22

The lateral corticospinal tract is somatotypically mapped, does the arm or leg lie most anterior?

arm lies most anterior
Leg lies most posterior

23

How do LMNs leave the spinal cord?

Via the ventral grey horn as ventral rootlets to form spinal nerve

24

Name the 8 cranial nerve motor nuclei?

1) CN3 - occulomotor
2) CN4 - trochlear
3) CN5 - trigeminal
4) CN6 - abducens
5) CN7 - facial
6) CN9 and 10 - glossopharyngeal and vagus
7) CN11 - accessory
8) CN12 - hypoglossal

25

Corticobulbar fibres to all motor cranial nerve nuclei except hypoglossal and facial take what path?

From pre central gyrus via genu of internal capsule
Give some fibres to contralateral and some to ipsilateral nucleus
(MOST) CN NUCLEI ARE SERVED BILATERALLY

26

Corticobulbar fibres synapse with LMNs where?

Motor cranial nerve nuclei

27

How are hypoglossal motor nuclei served?

By contralateral corticobulbar fibres

28

How does the facial motor nuclei differ to other cranial nerve nuclei?

Split into upper and lower part
Upper part sends fibres to muscles of upper face
Lower part sends fibres to muscles of lower face

29

How is the upper part of facial motor nucleus served?

Served by bilateral corticobulbar fibres
So upper face is served bilaterally

30

How is the lower part of facial motor nucleus served?

Served only by contralateral corticobulbar fibres
Lower face is served contralaterally

31

How do LMN from the facial motor nucleus pass to the facial muscles?

Via the facial nerve
Passes out of skull via internal acoustic meatus
Passes through facial canal
Out of stylomastoid foramen
Branches into 5 branches within the substance of the parotid gland