C: Spinal cord and Spinal nerves Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Term 2 C&M > C: Spinal cord and Spinal nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in C: Spinal cord and Spinal nerves Deck (26)
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1
Q

What is the functional difference between the dorsal and ventral roots?

A

Dorsal - carries sensory afferent fibres

Ventral - carries motor efferent fibres

2
Q

Where do the dorsal and ventral roots unite to form spinal nerves?

A

In or near the intervertebral foramen

3
Q

What do the dorsal rami of spinal nerves supply?

A

Muscles and skin of the back region

4
Q

What do the ventral rami of spinal nerves supply?

A

Muscles and skin of the front of the body and the limbs

5
Q

Name 3 conditions in which the composition of CSF may be altered?

A

1) Meningitis
2) SAH
3) MS

6
Q

At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate in an adult?

A

L1

7
Q

At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate in a neonate?

A

L3 vertebral body

8
Q

What is the most common site from which CSF is sampled in adults?

A

Lumbar cistern

9
Q

What position is the patient in to perform a lumbar puncture?

A

Positioned on one side, perpendicular to the bed and curled up as much as possible, needle is inserted into the midline between the L3/L4 vertebra

10
Q

What surface landmarks would you use to determine the point at which to insert the needle in a lumbar puncture?

A

Spinous processes

Line between 2 iliac crests

11
Q

Why is the patient asked to curl up when taking a CSF sample?

A

Flex the vertebral column - spinous processes are more prominent for obtaining correct site
Intervertebral space is made larger

12
Q

Starting with the skin which layers are pierced by a lumbar puncture needle?

A

1) Skin
2) Subcutaneous tissue
3) Supraspinous ligament
4) Interspinous ligament
5) Ligamentum flavum
6) Epidural space
7) Dura
8) Arachnoid
9) Subarachnoid space

13
Q

In what way is bladder function affected by compression of the cauda equine eg. by a tumour?

A

Difficulty with micturition

14
Q

In a series of cross-sections taken from each region of the spinal cord, which section would contain the most white matter why?

A

Cervical - closest to the head, conveying more axons than any other region

15
Q

In which region of the spinal column is the dorsal white matter subdivided into 2 columns on each side?

A

Thoracic (above T6) and cervical

16
Q

What kind of info is carried in the cuneate and gracile fascicles?

A

Both discriminative touch, vibration and proprioception
Gracile - below T6
Cuneate - above T6

17
Q

In which spinal cord segments is the ventral grey horn enlarged due to the accumulation of motor neurons for innervation of the limbs?

A

Cervical (upper limb)

Lumbar (lower limbs)

18
Q

What types of sensory info are carried by the spinothalamic tract?

A

those essential to survival - pain, temperature, some touch and pressure

19
Q

Does the spinothalamic tract run ipsilaterally or contralaterally in the cord?

A

Contralaterally

20
Q

In which region of the cerebral cortex does the spinothalamic pathway terminate?

A

Post-central gyrus

21
Q

Where does the secondary sensory area for somaesthetic information lie?

A

Superior parietal lobe - posterior to post-central gyrus

22
Q

What types of sensory info are carried in the dorsal column pathway?

A

2 point discriminative touch, vibrations and proprioception

23
Q

Where do the fibres of the dorsal column pathway run at the level of the spinal cord?

A

Ipsilaterally

24
Q

Where do the fibres of the dorsal column pathway run at the level of the closed medulla?

A

Ipsilaterally (cross at the level of the closed medulla)

25
Q

Where do the fibres of the dorsal column pathway run at the level of the open medulla?

A

Contralaterally

26
Q

What determines whether fibres ascend in the gracile or cuneate fascicle?

A

Gracile - from below T6

Cuneate - from above T6