C: Brain imaging Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Term 2 C&M > C: Brain imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in C: Brain imaging Deck (19)
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1
Q

What kind of imaging is used in strokes and why?

A

Usually CT due to higher availability and speed

Done to exclude haemorrhage and prove ischaemic stroke

2
Q

What is a lacunar stroke?

A

Stroke which affects a smaller area - hand and arm affected rather than full hemiparesis

3
Q

What are the 6 symptoms of cerebellar infract, are they ipsilateral or contralateral? (DANISH)

A

1) Dysdiadokinesis
2) Ataxia - loss of control of bodily movements
3) Nystagmus
4) Intention tremor
5) Slurred speech
6) Hypotonia - low muscle tone

4
Q

What would be the main symptoms of a large right sided infarct due to MCA blockage? 4

A

1) Aphasia - loss of speech
2) Inattention - right side to do with spatial awareness
3) Left sided hemiparesis and hemiarthresia
4) L homogenous hemianopia - loss of left visual field

5
Q

What would be the clinical presentation of a left cerebellar infarct? 2

A

1) Inattention

2) Incoordination

6
Q

If a patient has a internal carotid artery blockage what is the likely prognosis and GCS score?

A

Very low GCS score

Death is highly likely

7
Q

What are 2 risk factors for bleeding in the basal ganglia region?

A

1) Anti coagulants eg. warfarin

2) Bleeding disorders

8
Q

What 3 symptoms does a subarachnoid haemorrhage present with?

A

1) Thunderclap headache - horrendous headache, blood irritates the meninges
2) Vomiting
3) Low GCS

9
Q

What artery is commonly ruptures in extradural haemorrhage?

A

Middle meningeal artery

10
Q

How is an extradural haemorrhage treated?

A

With burr hole surgery

11
Q

What is the common clinical presentation of an extradural haemorrhage?

A

Trauma followed by a lucid interval (temporary improvement in patients condition) followed by a loss of conciousness

12
Q

What is a contre-coup injury?

A

Get soft tissue injury on one side, hit to that side causes brain to hit opposite side of skull and get bleed on other side of the brain

13
Q

Subdural haemorrhage is usually caused by what?

A

Tearing of bridging veins which cross the subdural space

14
Q

How does a subdural haemorrhage present?

A

Gradual increase in headache and confusion

15
Q

Give 3 risk factors for subdural haemorrhage?

A

1) Elderly
2) Traumatic
3) Alcoholics

16
Q

If a patient presented with changes in personality and disinhibition, where is the lesion most likely to be?

A

In the frontal cortex

17
Q

Infarction of the midbrain would cause what syndrome?

A

Locked in syndrome

18
Q

Why is vision and hearing unaffected in a midbrain infarct?

A

Because CN1 and CN2 come off the brain above the brainstem

19
Q

A right occipital infarct would cause what syndrome?

A

Charles Bonnay syndrome - left homonymous hemianopia (primary visual cortex is in the occipital lobe)