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Year 2 Term 2 C&M > Extra revision 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Extra revision 1 Deck (38)
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1
Q

In the neural retina, what are the 3 kinds of interneurones?

A

1) Bipolar cells
2) Amacrine cells
3) Horizontal cells

2
Q

What connections do bipolar cells make?

A

Between one or more photoreceptors and one or more optic tract neurones (ganglion cells) aswell as with horizontal and amacrine cells

3
Q

Describe horizontal cells and the connections they make?

A

Found at the level of the photoreceptor and bipolar cell.
Have several short processes and one long process
Make connections between adjacent and more distal rods and cones in the outer plexiform layer, can also synapse with the dendrites of bipolar cells

4
Q

Describe amacrine cells and the connections they make?

A

Located at level of bipolar and ganglion cells
Have numerous dendrites which make connections with bipolar and optic tract neurones in the inner plexiform layer (as well as making occasional connections with photoreceptors in the outer plexiform layer)

5
Q

How do epidermal skin appendages form?

A

As simple down growths of the epidermis into the layers of mesoderm which will eventually become the dermis and subcutis

6
Q

In which layers are the base of hair follicles located?

A

In the mid dermis or subcutis

7
Q

What is the function of hair?

A

Thermoregulation and display

8
Q

What are the 2 forms of sebaceous glands found, which is more common?

A

1) Associated with hair follicles, develop as lateral protrusions from the hair follicle about 2/3 up, secrete sebum into shaft of hair follicle
2) Some are independent of hair follicles and open up directly onto the skin or mucosal surface
Those associated with hair follicles are the most common

9
Q

Where are eccrine sweat glands located?

A

Wide spread throughout the skin, located at the junction between the dermis and subcutis, sweat is passed along a duct and deposited on the surface

10
Q

What is the function of eccrine sweat glands?

A

Thermoregulation - reduce body temp

11
Q

Where are apocrine sweat glands located?

A

Confined to a few localised areas - mainly in groin and axillary regions, secretory component is in the lower dermis or subcutis
Duct carries the secretion to be secreted in the upper part of the hair follicle above the sebaceous duct

12
Q

What is the function of apocrine sweat glands?

A

Have no definite function in humans but in animals involved in scent production

13
Q

Which 3 skin appendages are absent from thick skin?

A

Apocrine sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hair follicles

14
Q

What part of the femur do the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries wrap around?

A

The femoral neck

15
Q

How do the obturator nerve and artery pass out of the pelvis?

A

Via the obturator canal which is a small aperture in the obturator membrane which spans the obturator foramen

16
Q

What 9 structures pass out of the pelvis through the gap between the inguinal ligament and the pelvis?

A

1) Femoral nerve
2) Femoral artery
3) Femoral vein
4) Lymphatics
5) Femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve
6) Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
7) Psoas major
8) Iliacus
9) Pectineus muscles

17
Q

What are the 5 retinacula of the ankle?

A

1) Flexor retinaculum
2) Superior extensor retinaculum
3) Inferior extensor retinaculum
4) Superior fibular retinaculum
5) Inferior fibula retinaculum

18
Q

Where does the flexor retinaculum extend from and to?

A

From medial malleolus to inferomedial margin of calcaneus (continuous above with the deep fascia of the leg and below with the deep fascia of the foot (plantar aponeurosis)

19
Q

What passes beneath the flexor retinaculum?

A

Tendons of tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor hallucis longus

20
Q

Where does the superior extensor retinaculum extend from and to?

A

Thickening of deep fascia in the distal leg just superior to the ankle joint, and attached to the anterior borders of the tibia and fibula

21
Q

What passes beneath the superior extensor retinaculum?

A

Tendons of all muscles of the anterior compartment

22
Q

Where does the inferior extensor retinaculum extend from and to?

A

Y shaped
Base is attached to the lateral upper calcaneus
Crosses medially over the foot, one arm attaches the medial malleolus and other arm attaches to the medial side of plantar aponeurosis

23
Q

What passes beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum?

A

Tendons of fibularis tertius and extensor digitorum longus pass under the base
Tendons of tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus pass under the 2 arms

24
Q

What does the superior fibular retinaculum pass between?

A

Between lateral malleolus and calcaneus

25
Q

What does the inferior fibular retinaculum pass between?

A

Both ends attached to the lateral surface of the calcaneus (blend with fibres of inferior extensor retinaculum above)

26
Q

What passes beneath the fibular retinacula?

A

The both bind the tendons of fibularis longus and brevis to the lateral sides of the foot

27
Q

In what segments of the spinal cord does a lateral grey horn exist?

A

T12-L2

S2-S4

28
Q

Grey matter of the spinal cord can be divided into 10 zones known as what, how are the numbered?

A

Rexed’s laminae

They are numbered sequentially from dorsal to ventral

29
Q

What is the dorsolateral fasiculus or Lissauer’s tract and what is its function?

A

Vertical running tract located superficially to the tip of the dorsal horn
Afferent fibres entering the dorsal horn divide into ascending and descending branches - they mostly terminate at point of entry but can travel for varying distances in either direction and they do so in these tracts - dorsal root afferents can therefore establish synaptic contacts over several spinal segments

30
Q

In terms of Rexed’s laminae, where do cutaneous afferents and proprioceptive and muscle afferents tend to terminate?

A

Cutaneous afferents - in superficial dorsal laminae

Muscle and proprioceptive afferents - tend to terminate in deeper laminae

31
Q

What is the substantia gelatinosa?

A

Tip of the dorsal horn equivalent to Rexed’s laminae 1-3

Receives afferents associated with nociception

32
Q

At thoracic and upper lumbar levels which laminae contains preganglionic sympathetic neurones?

A

Lateral part of laminae 7

33
Q

In sacral regions which laminae contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurones?

A

Lateral part of laminae 7

34
Q

What are the 2 main roles of the choroid layer?

A

1) Pigmented - absorb light

2) Vascular layer

35
Q

What is the blood supply to the choroid layer, pigmented epithelium, photoreceptors and outerplexiform layer of the retina?

A

Choroid capillary plexus

short and long posterior ciliary arteries from the ophthalmic artery (branch of internal carotid)

36
Q

What is the blood supply to the inner layers of th retina?

A

Central retinal artery (branch of ophthalmic which enters the optic nerve) which gives rise to 4 main branches, the temporal (superior and inferior) and the macula

37
Q

What is the nerve supply to dilator pupillae muscle?

A

Sympathetic fibres carried by the nasociliary nerve (branch of V1) via the superior cervical ganglion

38
Q

What is the nerve supply to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscles?

A

Parasympathetic fibres via the ciliary ganglion

Pre-synaptic via the occulomotor nerve, post synaptic via the short ciliary nerve (branch of V1)