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Flashcards in Maciej Chapter 2 Maciej Deck (11):

What is a stem cell ?

-A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell of an organism which is capable of:
--Making copies of itself
--Differentiating to form different cell types


What types of stem cells are there ?

-Embryonic stem cells
-Adult stem cells


Describe embryonic stem cells

-Found in embryos
-Often extracted from umbilical cord
-Can differentiate into many cell types


Adult stem cells

-Can differentiate into cells of tissue that it cam from
-Extracted from tissue, often extracted from bone marrow


Name some uses of stem cells

-Used to treat paralysis in rats
-Used to treat diabetes


Were are stem cells found in plants? Give a some information about them

Meristems, can differentiate into any type of plant cell throughout the plants life


Why would having your own embryonic stem cells stored be useful ?

If you were to have a serious operation, e.g. organ transplant, stem cells could be used for aid and they would not be rejected by the body


Name the stages of the cell cycle

Interphase (G1, S, G2)
M Phase (Mitosis, Cytokinesis)


Describe the process of interphase

-Cell prepares to divide
-G1: Cell grows and new organelles and proteins are made
-S: DNA synthesis, DNA is replicated
-G2: Cell keeps growing


Describe the process of the M Phase

-Mitosis: Chromosomes become shorter and thicker, they line up at the centre of the cell, they are then pulled to opposite sides if the cell
-Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm divides to produce 2 genetically identical cells


What is cloning and how can it be useful ?

Therapeutic cloning:
-Embryo produced with the same genes as the patient, this means the cells will not be rejected by the patients body so they can be used in medical treatment
-Can be cloned quickly and economically, may be used to increase yield or to save rare species from extinction
-Plants with specific characteristics such as disease resistance can be cloned to produce large numbers of plants with the characteristic