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Flashcards in Maciej Chapter 2 Maciej Deck (11):
1

What is a stem cell ?

-A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell of an organism which is capable of:
--Making copies of itself
--Differentiating to form different cell types

2

What types of stem cells are there ?

-Embryonic stem cells
-Adult stem cells

3

Describe embryonic stem cells

-Found in embryos
-Often extracted from umbilical cord
-Can differentiate into many cell types

4

Adult stem cells

-Can differentiate into cells of tissue that it cam from
-Extracted from tissue, often extracted from bone marrow

5

Name some uses of stem cells

-Used to treat paralysis in rats
-Used to treat diabetes

6

Were are stem cells found in plants? Give a some information about them

Meristems, can differentiate into any type of plant cell throughout the plants life

7

Why would having your own embryonic stem cells stored be useful ?

If you were to have a serious operation, e.g. organ transplant, stem cells could be used for aid and they would not be rejected by the body

8

Name the stages of the cell cycle

Interphase (G1, S, G2)
M Phase (Mitosis, Cytokinesis)

9

Describe the process of interphase

-Cell prepares to divide
-G1: Cell grows and new organelles and proteins are made
-S: DNA synthesis, DNA is replicated
-G2: Cell keeps growing

10

Describe the process of the M Phase

-Mitosis: Chromosomes become shorter and thicker, they line up at the centre of the cell, they are then pulled to opposite sides if the cell
-Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm divides to produce 2 genetically identical cells

11

What is cloning and how can it be useful ?

Therapeutic cloning:
-Embryo produced with the same genes as the patient, this means the cells will not be rejected by the patients body so they can be used in medical treatment
Plants:
-Can be cloned quickly and economically, may be used to increase yield or to save rare species from extinction
-Plants with specific characteristics such as disease resistance can be cloned to produce large numbers of plants with the characteristic