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Flashcards in Major Tranquilizers Deck (17)
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What are tranquilizers also known as?

  • antipsychotic medications 
  • neuroleptic drugs (older term)


What are tranquilizers used to treat?

  • Psychotic disorders - schizophrenia, paranoia
  • Dementia
  • Movement disorders
  • Intractable hiccups
  • Severe nausea and vomiting (chemotherapy)


What kind of drugs are tranquilizers?

Blocker drugs - they block all kinds of receptors and act as antagonists

Primarily with dopamine receptors (reward neurotransmitter & movement)


What is responsible for the major effects of tranquilizers?

Blockade of dopaminergic transmission


What does blockage in the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas cause with tranquilizers?

Antipsychotic action


What does blockade in basal ganglia with tranquilizers do?

Extrapyramidal side effects - like parkinson's


What does blockade in chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla cause with tranquilizers?

Antiemetic effects - stop vomiting


How does tranquilizers help with schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia = overactivity of dopaminergic system --> antipsychotic meds reduce dopaminergic activity by blocking D2 receptors


All tranquilizers are strong _________ receptor antagonist?

D2 receptor


What are some problems with dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia?

Receptors are blocked within 2-4 hours, but therapeutic activity requires several weeks of treatment to achieve full effect

Therapeutic effect is related to slow-developing depolarization block of dopaminergic neurons


Since tranquilizers help to recover normal cell morphology - what happens after drugs are discontinued?

Morphological abnormalities come back and symptoms of disease return


All tranquilizers have similar ________?



What are some side effects of tranquilizers?

  • Extrapyramidal side effects: movement disorders
    • Parkinsonism - akinesia (difficulty initiating movement) tremor
    • Caused by blockade of D2 receptors in basal ganglia 
  • Akathisia - restless leg syndrome
  • Dystonia - sustained muscle contraction
  • Tradive Dyskinesia - abnormal movements (face and tongue but may be trunk and limbs)
  • Sedation and Autonomic side effects


Antipyschotics potentiate CNS effects of what kind of drugs?

  • Sedatives
  • Analgesics
  • Antihistamines
  • Respiratory depression caused by Opioids
  • Antacids - decrease absorption of antipyschotics
  • Anticonvulsants - decrease plasma levels of antipsychotics
  • Antipyschotics may alter efficacy of antihypertensive meds


What are some of the typical antipyschotics?

  • chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - original
  • haloperidol (Haldol) - end of life drug
  • prochlorperazine (Compazine) - nausea/vomiting


What are the atypical antipsychotics?

  • aripiprazole (Abilify) - bipolar
  • clozapine (Clozaril) 
  • risperdone (Risperdal)


What are the things a dentist should watch out for with patients taking antipsychotics?

  • Hematologic disturbances - wbc counts
  • Alter QT interval of heart - caution with epinephrine, risk for arrhythmias
  • Extrapyramidal effects (movement disorders)
    • Bruxism, tardive dyskinesia