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Flashcards in Major Tranquilizers Deck (17)
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1

What are tranquilizers also known as?

  • antipsychotic medications 
  • neuroleptic drugs (older term)

2

What are tranquilizers used to treat?

  • Psychotic disorders - schizophrenia, paranoia
  • Dementia
  • Movement disorders
  • Intractable hiccups
  • Severe nausea and vomiting (chemotherapy)

3

What kind of drugs are tranquilizers?

Blocker drugs - they block all kinds of receptors and act as antagonists

Primarily with dopamine receptors (reward neurotransmitter & movement)

4

What is responsible for the major effects of tranquilizers?

Blockade of dopaminergic transmission

5

What does blockage in the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas cause with tranquilizers?

Antipsychotic action

6

What does blockade in basal ganglia with tranquilizers do?

Extrapyramidal side effects - like parkinson's

7

What does blockade in chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla cause with tranquilizers?

Antiemetic effects - stop vomiting

8

How does tranquilizers help with schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia = overactivity of dopaminergic system --> antipsychotic meds reduce dopaminergic activity by blocking D2 receptors

9

All tranquilizers are strong _________ receptor antagonist?

D2 receptor

10

What are some problems with dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia?

Receptors are blocked within 2-4 hours, but therapeutic activity requires several weeks of treatment to achieve full effect

Therapeutic effect is related to slow-developing depolarization block of dopaminergic neurons

11

Since tranquilizers help to recover normal cell morphology - what happens after drugs are discontinued?

Morphological abnormalities come back and symptoms of disease return

12

All tranquilizers have similar ________?

Efficacy

13

What are some side effects of tranquilizers?

  • Extrapyramidal side effects: movement disorders
    • Parkinsonism - akinesia (difficulty initiating movement) tremor
    • Caused by blockade of D2 receptors in basal ganglia 
  • Akathisia - restless leg syndrome
  • Dystonia - sustained muscle contraction
  • Tradive Dyskinesia - abnormal movements (face and tongue but may be trunk and limbs)
  • Sedation and Autonomic side effects

14

Antipyschotics potentiate CNS effects of what kind of drugs?

  • Sedatives
  • Analgesics
  • Antihistamines
  • Respiratory depression caused by Opioids
  • Antacids - decrease absorption of antipyschotics
  • Anticonvulsants - decrease plasma levels of antipsychotics
  • Antipyschotics may alter efficacy of antihypertensive meds

15

What are some of the typical antipyschotics?

  • chlorpromazine (Thorazine) - original
  • haloperidol (Haldol) - end of life drug
  • prochlorperazine (Compazine) - nausea/vomiting

16

What are the atypical antipsychotics?

  • aripiprazole (Abilify) - bipolar
  • clozapine (Clozaril) 
  • risperdone (Risperdal)

17

What are the things a dentist should watch out for with patients taking antipsychotics?

  • Hematologic disturbances - wbc counts
  • Alter QT interval of heart - caution with epinephrine, risk for arrhythmias
  • Extrapyramidal effects (movement disorders)
    • Bruxism, tardive dyskinesia