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Flashcards in Bactericidal Antibiotics Deck (44)
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1

What is penicillins mechanism of action?

Block bacterial cell wall synthesis by interferring with structural glycopepties

2

What is penicillinase?

A beta lactamase (enzyme) that breaks down the beta lactam ring of the penicillin molecule

3

What are penicillinase-producing bacteria associated with?

  • Immunocompromised 
  • Immunosuppressed
  • Malnourished
  • Institutionalized

4

What is another name for penicillinase?

Beta lactamase

5

How much of an oral dose of penicilin is excreted within the first 4 hours?

70%

6

What can slow the rapid excretion of penicillin?

probenecid (Benemid) - a medication used to treat gout

7

How does probenecid work to slow excretion of penicillin?

It stops the reabsorption of uric acid back into the bloodstream 

It also has a greater affinity for the carrier than penicillin does (not excreted by active transport as fast)

8

What does probenecid do to the blood levels of penicillin?

Elevates the level 3-4 times, and prolongs the effect of penicillin

9

What is the drug of choice for orofacial infections?

penicillin

10

What was the first penicillin produced, and the only natural penicillin available commercially?

Penicillin G 

11

What is penicillin G used to treat?

STDs

12

How and when is penicillin G taken?

By injection, not after meals 

13

What is procaine penicillin G (repository form)?

Dissolved in oil, given by injection - slowly absorbed 12-24 hours

14

What is procaine penicillin G (repository form) used for?

Treponema pallidum & anthrax

15

What is the trade name of benzathine penicillin G?

Bicillin

16

What produces therapeutic blood levels that last for 3 weeks?

Benzathine penicillin G - Bicillin

17

Which penicillin produces the longest therapeutic blood level after parenteral administration?

Benzathine penicillin G 

18

What penicillin is acid stabile?

penicillin V

19

When writing a prescription for penicillin V, what could you write?

penicillin V (Pen VK - brand name)

Just write penicillin V not Pen VK otherwise no generic! 

20

Describe penicillin V.

Bactericidal

Narrow spectrum

Acid stabile

Better bioavailability in potassium form

21

What does the CDC say when treating an infection?

You much use the most narrow spectrum antibiotic available for that infection 

22

What is the best choice for orofacial infections?

penicillin V

23

Can penicillin be effective in the midst of penicillinase-resistant microorganism?

Yes - other penicillins can resist penicillinase 

24

What type of antiobiotic is ampicillin?

Broad spectrum bactericidal 

25

What is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States?

amoxicilin (Amoxil)

26

What is used to treat syphilis?

Principen with Probenecid (ampicillin with probenecid)

27

What is the drug called that combines amoxicillin with clavulanic acid to broaden spectrum?

Augmentin

28

When prescribing Augmentin, why do you want to prescribe 1 500mg capsule vs 2 250mg capsules?

There will be double (125mg) clavulanic acid = diarrhea 

29

What's an adverse reaction to penicillin?

Opportunistic fungal infections

30

What looks like, acts like and works like penicillin?

Cephalosporins