What is penicillins mechanism of action?
Block bacterial cell wall synthesis by interferring with structural glycopepties
What is penicillinase?
A beta lactamase (enzyme) that breaks down the beta lactam ring of the penicillin molecule
What are penicillinase-producing bacteria associated with?
What is another name for penicillinase?
How much of an oral dose of penicilin is excreted within the first 4 hours?
What can slow the rapid excretion of penicillin?
probenecid (Benemid) - a medication used to treat gout
How does probenecid work to slow excretion of penicillin?
It stops the reabsorption of uric acid back into the bloodstream
It also has a greater affinity for the carrier than penicillin does (not excreted by active transport as fast)
What does probenecid do to the blood levels of penicillin?
Elevates the level 3-4 times, and prolongs the effect of penicillin
What is the drug of choice for orofacial infections?
What was the first penicillin produced, and the only natural penicillin available commercially?
What is penicillin G used to treat?
How and when is penicillin G taken?
By injection, not after meals
What is procaine penicillin G (repository form)?
Dissolved in oil, given by injection - slowly absorbed 12-24 hours
What is procaine penicillin G (repository form) used for?
Treponema pallidum & anthrax
What is the trade name of benzathine penicillin G?
What produces therapeutic blood levels that last for 3 weeks?
Benzathine penicillin G - Bicillin
Which penicillin produces the longest therapeutic blood level after parenteral administration?
Benzathine penicillin G
What penicillin is acid stabile?
When writing a prescription for penicillin V, what could you write?
penicillin V (Pen VK - brand name)
Just write penicillin V not Pen VK otherwise no generic!
Describe penicillin V.
Better bioavailability in potassium form
What does the CDC say when treating an infection?
You much use the most narrow spectrum antibiotic available for that infection
What is the best choice for orofacial infections?
Can penicillin be effective in the midst of penicillinase-resistant microorganism?
Yes - other penicillins can resist penicillinase
What type of antiobiotic is ampicillin?
Broad spectrum bactericidal
What is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States?
What is used to treat syphilis?
Principen with Probenecid (ampicillin with probenecid)
What is the drug called that combines amoxicillin with clavulanic acid to broaden spectrum?
When prescribing Augmentin, why do you want to prescribe 1 500mg capsule vs 2 250mg capsules?
There will be double (125mg) clavulanic acid = diarrhea
What's an adverse reaction to penicillin?
Opportunistic fungal infections
What looks like, acts like and works like penicillin?