When is the best time to treat viral infections like recurrent herpes?
During the prodrome phase - The time before a viral outbreak (usually herpes)
What is the primary herpetic infection vs recurrent?
- Primary - Gingivostomatitis (ulcers along the gingival margin on palate that may spread to buccal mucosa, lips, tongue, floor of mouth, gingiva)
- Recurrent - lip lesions, intraoral ulcers
What does treatment of viral infections include?
- Antiviral drug
- Topical anesthetics
- Fluids, vitamins/minerals, rest
When is a viral infection contagious?
Vesicular lesions, vesicle breaks open.
They last about 10 days
What do antibiotics do to fungal infections?
They are ineffective for treatment of viral herpes lesions
Systemic corticosteroids are ___________ for use during viral illnesses.
Contraindicated - prolongs viral infection
How are antivirals named, and what are the major antivirals?
- acyclovir (Zovirax) cream
- acyclovir and hydrocortisone (Xerese)
- penciclovir (Denavir)
- famciclovir (Famvir)
- valacyclovir (Valtrex)
- docosonal (Abreva) = OTC
- benzalkonium 0.13% in isopropyl alcohol (Viroxin) = professionally dispensed
How does acyclovir (Zovirax) work?
Inhibits viral DNA polymerase preferentially, inhibitting viral replication (drug is incorporated into viral DNA)
What drug is approved for used in immunocompromised patients for viral infections?
What forms can acyclovir (Zovirax) be taken?
Systemic - recurrent mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex infections
Topical - herpes labialis, mucocutaneous infections
What should be used cautiously if the patient is immunocompromised?
acyclovir and hydrocortisone - steroid component problemativ
What antiviral drugs can be used during prodrome phase to prevent the outbreak of herpes simplex?
- famciclovir (Famvir) - very expensive $$$
- valacyclovir (Valtrex) - 2 doses only, 12 hours apart
When valacyclovir is metabolized, what does the metabolite turn into?
How is docosanol (Abreva) used?
Topical - applied 5 times a day. more affordable
How does benzalkonium chloride 0.13% in isopropyl alcohol (Viroxyn) work?
Rub medicaiton into lesion (stings) - and it strips the lipid coating off the virus and kills it on contact in affected area.
Viroxyn is considered a what?
What are the side effects of all antiviral drugs taken systemically?