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Flashcards in Male Genital Pathology Deck (65):

What system are scrotal pathologies usually associated with?

Derm - often asicated with derm changes elsewhere eg. chorioptic mange in rams


What effect does scrotal pathology have on the testicles?

- thermoregulatory failure
- testicular degeneration


What neoplaisas are common in the scrotum? In which spp?

- Varicose haemangioma (dog, scottish and airdale terriers; boar)
- MCT (dog)
- Haemangiosarcoma (dog)
- Papilloma (boar)


WHat is the tunica vaginalis?

Thin layer of mesothelium continuous with peritoneum


tunica vaginalis pathologies?

- Hydrocoele in ascites
- Periorchitis eg. FIP, Glassers
- Tumours rare - extension of peritoneal tumour eg. mesothelioma
- Adhesions form epidydimitis/orchitis or penetrating wounds


Give 4 broad pathologies assocated with testis and epidydmis

- developmental
- degeneration
- inflammation
- neoplasia


What inflammatory response may be seen to endogenous tissue in the testes and why?

- granulomatous inflammation to spermatozoa as haploid and seen as foreign
-> spermatic granuloma


What are most cases of ambigous/intersex conditions?

Male pseudohermaphrodites (external female genetalia with testes)


Where may cryptorchid testicles be retained? Does the side (L v R) matter?

- anywhere from kidney to inguinal canal
- side dependant on species can give clues eg. horses, left cryptorchid likely to be in abdomen


How do retianed testicles differ from descended?

- hypoplasia: small, fibrotic
- interstitial collagen deposition with only a few spermatogonia due to thermal suppression of spermatogenesis
- ^ risk tumour formation especialy in dogs (usually sertolli cell tumours)


What causes cryptorchidism?

- polygenetic
- hormonal/environmental factors


Causes of testicular hypoplasia?

- congential or pre-pubertal
- nutrition
- Zn deficiency
- genetic
- endocrine/cytogenic abnormalities


Appearance grossly/microscopically?

- grossly small but normal consistency
- microscopy reveals incomplete or absent spermatogenesis with hypoplastic and normal tubules intermingled
- may be unilateral or bilateral


What is the most common cause of male infertility?

Testicular atrophy/degeneration


Causes of testicular atrophy?

- ^ scrotal temperature
- v blood supply
- vit A/Zn deficiency
- drug reaction
- radiation damage
- obstructin
- hyperoestrogenism


How can local v systemic casues of testicular atrophy be defined?

- uni or bilateral


How do atrophied testicles appear microscopically?

- similar to hypoplasia but fibrotic and granulomatous possible (reaction to degenerating spermatozoa)
- multinucleate spermatids may be seen (bipsy/semen)
- wavy basement membrane (used to be bigger, now shrunk)


Is true orchitis common in animals?



Give 3 casues of orchitis

1. haematogenous eg. brucella abortus in bulls -> purulent orchitis with prgressive fibrosis
2. trauma (mainly dogs) accompanied by periorchitis and epidydmitis
3. Reflux orchitis as extension of inflammation from epidydmis, prostate, bladder, urethra -> mixed infection including coliforms


common outcomes of orchitis

- sterility if severe
- spermatic granuloma formaiton


Which spp is epidydmitis common in?

- ram and dog
> generally more common than orchitis anyway


Causes of epidydmitis

- ascending infection from accessory glands and urogenital tract
> eg. ram
- haematogenously eg. Brucella ovis [notifiable]
- ascending eg. actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus somni, E. Coli


pathogenesis of epidydmitis

- initial enlargement -> abscess or granuloma formation in TAIL
- mostly unilateral, most tail (not head)
- mixed infections involving coliforms, staph and strep
-> some degree of testicular atrophy and degen due to temperature and pressure


what congential condition may be confused with epidydmitis?

- spermatic granuloma of epidydmal head


Which sp. if more commonly affected by testicular neoplasia?

dogs, less horses


3 types of testicular neoplasia?

- Interstitial (Leydog)
- Sertolli
- Seminoma and teratoma (germa cell tumours)
> large proportion of cases will be MIXED tumour


What age group of dogs are commonly affected by Leydig cell tumours? Are they usually malignant?

> 8yo
- no, benign
- may be functional and cause aggression


Gross and micro appearance of Leydig interstitial cell tumour

> gross
- single or multiple 1-2cm spherical, well demarkated, tan-orage, greasy/haemorrhagic, bulge on cut surface
- NO gross enlargement of testes
> micro
- polyhedral cells packed in small groups by fine fibrous stroma


What dogs are commonly affected by Sertolli cell tumours? Are they usually malignant?

- > 6yo
- Commonly cryptorchid testes
- Metastis in 10% (^ risk in retained testes) -> scrotal LN


Gross and micro appearance of sertoli cell tumour

> gross
- unilateral, firm, lobulated discrete mass
- testicular enlargement
- cut surface brown - white colour varies, often fibrous and may contain cysts
> micro
- sertoli cells multilayered within tubules or invading interstitial tissue. Abundant fibrous tissue


Possible consequence of Sertoli cell tumour?

25% secrete oestrogen and some inhibin
- hyperoestrogenism
- casue feminastion and attractiveness to male dogs
> pendulous sheath, mammary development, symmetrical alopecia, atrophy of other testis, squamous metaplasia of prostate gland (predisposing to infection), behavioural changes, anaemia due to myelotoxicity of oestogren


What aged dogs are commonly affected by Sertolli cell tumours? Are they usually malignant?

> 7yo
- can occour in retained testes
- locally invasive but metastasis rare


Gross and micro appearance of seminoma

> gross
- unilateral and single swelling and pain
- soft cream mass (~~lymphoid tissue) bulges on cut section
> micro
- sheets of polyhedral cells with large nucleus and thin rim of cytoplasm
- mitoises common
- local invasiveness but metastases rare


Which species and group of animals are teratomas most commonly seen in?

young horses usually cryptorchid


what is a teratoma?

tumour dervied from all 3 germ cell layers
- large, mixture of skine, bone ,teeth, glands, muscle, cartilage, nerves, fat
- mostly benign


What is funiculitis and when is it seen?

- inflamamtion of spermatic cord (usually acute and necrotising)
- seen after open castration
- common in pigs
- "scirrhous cord" in horses after open castration (proud flesh, weeping fistulation to exterior, casued by staph/strep)


What pathologys may be seen in the accessory sex glands?

- inflammation of seminal vesicles (vesicular adenitis)
- inflamation of bulourethral glands
> both seen in bulls and rams
- chronic intersitial inflam
- metaplasia common


When is prostate hyperplasia comonly seen?

Older entire dogs


CLinical signs of prostate hyperplasia?

- constipaton
- urinary stasis LESS COMMON


Microscopic appearance of prostate hyperplasia?

papillary proliferation of the glandular tissue


How can prostate hyperplasia be reversed?

Castration causes atrophy - hormone dependent


When is prostate metaplasia often seen and what does it predispose to?

- dogs with sertolid cell tumours
- cattle/sheep assocated with oestrogenic implants and ingestion of phytoestrogens eg. red clover
- predisposes to inflammation


Is prostatitis common?

Not uncommon in dogs - older dogs often together with hyperplasia
- often due to acending infection (coliforms, strep and staph)
- may be chronic and subclinical


Gross changes and possible sequalea of prostatits?

- assymmetrical enlargement
- may contain abscesses
- untreated may develop septicamiea/toxaemia or peritonitis


Which neoplasia is commonly seen in the prostate?



What age are dogs commonly affected by prostatic carcinoma?



Gross and micro apperance of prostatic neoplasia?

- assymetircal enlargement
> micro
- multiple layers of haphazardly arragnded glandular cells invading interstitium of gland and often rpovoking marked fibrosis


Prognosis of prostatic neoplasia?

- guarded
- high rate of local recurrence/metastasis (80% on initial Dx)


clinical signs of prostatic neoplaisa?

- cachexia
- locomotor abnormalities (due to pelvic adhesions)


Give egs. of venereal transmitted diseases, their Dx and effects.

- tritrichmonas foetus (dx via sheath washing and culture/micro) -> embryonic death/abortion and metritis/pyometra in female cow
- Camylobacter foetus venerealis (Dx via sheath washings and FAT/culture) -> infertitlity/early embryonic death/abortion in female
> NB: Campylobacter foetus foetus also causes abortion but is not venereal!
- Herpesvirus
- Papillomavirus


What are the 2 broad categories of penis and prepuce pathology?

- inflammatory and non inflammatory


Give egs. of non-inflammatory penis and prepuce path.

- hypoplasia in early castration and intersex states
- directional deviations eg. persistent frenulum (esp. board and bulls)
- hypospadia/epispadia - abnormal urethral opening
- haematomas (esp. bulls)
- paraphimosis (inabilituy to retract penis into prepuce eg. due trauma, inflam, neoplasia, some drugs)


Give egs. of inflammatory penis and prepuce path. Eg of a cause?

- Balanitis (glans penis)
- Posthitis (prepuce)
> generally both: balanoposthitis
- Eg. Cause: Herpesviruses (Bovine HV1= infectious balanoposthitis, Equine HV3=equine coital exanthema, canine HV)


What is pizzle rot? Which spp is it commonly seen in and what are the causes? Clinical signs?

- sheep (mainly castrated males)
- ulcerative posthitis
- corynebacterium renale
> predisposition due to hypoplasia of the penis/prepuce -> urinary soiling
> high planes of nutrition may contribute
- clinical signs: yellowish necrosis and ulceration on anterodorsal prepucial aspect
- may slough off
- 2* infectino comon


Give 2 parasitic infections of the penis and prepuce

- cutaneous habronemiasis (summer sores) in horses: exuberant grnaulation due to larvae deposition
- dourine (trypanosomiasis) NOTIFIABLE DISEASE


What is the most common neoplasia of the penis and prepuce? Which spp. is this espeically important in?

Squamous cell carcinoma
- horses (geldings and stallions)


Cause and clinical signs of penile SCC?

- thought to be due to smegma
- now shown to be papilloma virus
> cauliflower like, variable size, glans penis affected
> problems generally due to ulceration and 2* infection -> urethral obstruction


Microscopic appearance of SCC biopsy?

- malignant squamous epithelium forming keratin


Is SCC usually malignant?

- low-grade malignancy
- minority metastasize ot regional LNs but rarely to distant
- will recur if incompletely removed


Which spp are commonly affected by fibropapilloma of the penis?

1-2yo bulls


What is fibropapilloma usually caused by?

- bovine papillomavirus type 1


Where does fibropapilloma affect? Prognosis?

- glans penis
- benign but may be large and multiple
- regresses with age
- complications usually due to 2* infection or penile obstruction


Where is transmissable venereal tumour usually seen?

- caudal penis of dogs
- site of wounds
(rare in UK)


Gross and micro appearance of transmissable venereal tumour?

> gross
- variable size, cauliflower like
- prone to ulceration and 2* infection
> micro
- sheets of cells resembling lymphoblasts


Prognosis and Tx of transmissabble venereal tumour?

- metastasis rare, regression often occours
- exception: dogs in poor health/immunosupressive eg. strays
- vincristine responsive