Flashcards in Pig Repro Deck (64):
What is the target piglets/soq/year?
What is a target no. litters/year?
Target litter size?
Target preweaning mortality?
what age do pigs reach puberty? what weight?
- 6-8 months
- 120 kg
Which oestrus are pigs first mated at?
- 2nd or 3rd (3rd best)
What is the gestation length of the pig?
- 115 (3months 3 weeks 3days)
- differs between herds
How long do pigs lactate for?
- minimum weaning age
How long does it take pigs to return to oestrus?
How many parities are pigs culled after?
How many follicles on each ovary at ovulation?
WHere does feritlisation take place in the pig?
Oviduct (sperm must enter before ovulation occours)
How is maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig?
Release of E2 to inhibit PG production (which would cause luteolysis)
WHat happens around the time of embreyo implantation? What happens to delayed implantation piglets?
- embreyos move into uterus, move around uterus and implant
- change uterine environment
> late comers likely to die off
When does the sow ovulate?
- NOT 12 hours after standing oestrus like in cows.
HOw long is a sow in standing oestrus for?
When does the sow ovulate?
2/3 way through standing oestrus period
- but this time changes depending on length of oestrus which is variable each cycle
What happens to sperm after entering the uterus?
Parks up in oviduct and enters low metabolic state
HOw is PD carried out in the sow?
- ultrasound A mode, doppler
- visual (only week before farrowing)
HOw early can farrowing be induced?
2-3d before expected date
Why may parity 2 dip occour?
Improper nutrition - following first litter while growing herself, lactation massive energy demand -> opposite of flushing, v litter size
HOw may oestrus be induced without drugs? Eg. if sows reaching 120kg and not coming into oestrus.
Stress group of pigs!!
- put into a lorry and drive round for couple of hours
WHat is regular return defined as in the pig?
What is the general cause for regular returns?
What is the common cause for irregular returns?
- management problems
- early embreyonic losses
* be aware by coincidence this may happen at regular return date aswell
How many sows are culled per year?
Look at lecture for slide of targets and interference levels
What happens if <6 embreyos in uterus at beginning of pregnancy?
- reabsorbed, not viable to have such a small litter
What are liekly causes of mummifeid foetuses/stillbirths of all one size?
uterine environment affected at one time (stress or fever, toxic or nutiritonal causes)
At hat age are foetuses immunocomeptetn?
What will piglets >35d dying look like?
Mummified through to sillborn (pig like) as ossification has begun.
How may environment affect pregnancy?
- sunburn -> PG release and abortion
Waht may cause abortion?
- micronutrient vet E and A
What are SMEDI type problems usually caused by?
DOes parvo cause abortion?
How may parvovirus be controlled?
Vax 8 weeks before service on first occasion [and 2 weeks before for subsequent boosters ?? NOT NECESSARY! long duration of immunity from initial vax]
What type of immmunity is aimed for with parvo virus?
- odd mummified foetus to show it is endemic in the herd
- otherwise at risk of explosive outbreak
PAthogens causing equential embreyonic death?
- SIV (swine influenza )
- Erysipelas (vasculitis)
- Leptospirosis (sigificance debatable)
> notifiable diseases
- AD, CSF, ASF
How does smedi differ to sequential embreyonic death?
DOnt know ! Look up
What is blue ear disease? Is it common?
Porcine repro and resp syndrome
- rare now
WHat do you vax pigs for? What else should be done at this time?
- erysipelas (esp outdoor and smallholding definitely)
+clostridia for outdoor pigs (cuases sudden death but not repro disorders)
- paired blood sample 2-3weeks apart (freeze serum in clotted tube) no need to test unless something goes wrong
- check for rising titres
How can you estimate gestational age?
- crown rump length
21 + (3xcrown/rump length(cm))
Lab investigations - what samples should be sent off?
3 foetuses minimal
- stomach contents
- liver (risk of contamination in post)
- chill dont freeze
targets for abortion, mummified and still born/litter
- 1% abrtion
- 2% mummification
- 7% stillborn
When is vaginal prolapse seen?
Tx vaginal prolapse
- purse string suture or Buhner suture
- NSAIDs (aspirin licensed)
What is Zearelenone toxicity?
OEstrogenic consumption -> herd problems
WHat does borwn staining in the trachea indicate?
Meconium inhalation - dystocia and distress during birth
WHen does corneal opacity (blue appearance) occour?
24hours post mortem
What is the commonest cause of intra-partum death?
- prologned farrowing
- last 3rd of partuiriton piglets
- NOT infectious
Why iis temperature regulation difficult inthe farrowing house?
- piglets get cold eassily
- sows overheat easily
Common causes of postparturient death?
How do piglets choose their nipple?
Stick to the one they first choose - will not go to free teat
What is AIAO?
all in all out - disease control
- good practice
- do not leave smaller piglets behind (likely to be the most diseased!)
What mechanical problems are common in farrowing houses?
- Carbon monoxide poisoning from faulty heaters
- faulty electrics where farmers have fiddled
- lack of anus (atresia ani)
- splay leg
How should OT be given?
2-5IU in a drip (want small doses frequently)
How regularly should pigelts be born?
every 20 minutes
Is assisstance indicated for a first farrowing sow?
No - will make repeats more likely in subsequent farrowing
When is uterine prolapse seen?
- bladder often come ouut too
- catheterise before internalising
can you rectal a sow?
Yes provided not a gilt
When does hypocalceimia occour?
How many teats shouuld a pig have?