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Flashcards in Pig Repro Deck (64):
0

What is the target piglets/soq/year?

22-26

1

What is a target no. litters/year?

2.2-2.4

2

Target litter size?

12-14

3

Target preweaning mortality?

<10%

4

what age do pigs reach puberty? what weight?

- 6-8 months
- 120 kg

5

Which oestrus are pigs first mated at?

- 2nd or 3rd (3rd best)

6

What is the gestation length of the pig?

- 115 (3months 3 weeks 3days)
- differs between herds

7

How long do pigs lactate for?

- 28d
- minimum weaning age

8

How long does it take pigs to return to oestrus?

3-5d

9

How many parities are pigs culled after?

6

10

How many follicles on each ovary at ovulation?

20

11

WHere does feritlisation take place in the pig?

Oviduct (sperm must enter before ovulation occours)

12

How is maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig?

Release of E2 to inhibit PG production (which would cause luteolysis)

13

WHat happens around the time of embreyo implantation? What happens to delayed implantation piglets?

- embreyos move into uterus, move around uterus and implant
- change uterine environment
> late comers likely to die off

14

When does the sow ovulate?

- NOT 12 hours after standing oestrus like in cows.

15

HOw long is a sow in standing oestrus for?

~2d

16

When does the sow ovulate?

2/3 way through standing oestrus period
- but this time changes depending on length of oestrus which is variable each cycle

17

What happens to sperm after entering the uterus?

Parks up in oviduct and enters low metabolic state

18

HOw is PD carried out in the sow?

- ultrasound A mode, doppler
- hormones
- visual (only week before farrowing)

19

HOw early can farrowing be induced?

2-3d before expected date

20

Why may parity 2 dip occour?

Improper nutrition - following first litter while growing herself, lactation massive energy demand -> opposite of flushing, v litter size

21

HOw may oestrus be induced without drugs? Eg. if sows reaching 120kg and not coming into oestrus.

Stress group of pigs!!
- put into a lorry and drive round for couple of hours

22

WHat is regular return defined as in the pig?

21d

23

What is the general cause for regular returns?

boar problem

24

What is the common cause for irregular returns?

- management problems
- early embreyonic losses
* be aware by coincidence this may happen at regular return date aswell

25

How many sows are culled per year?

40%

26

Look at lecture for slide of targets and interference levels

***

27

What happens if <6 embreyos in uterus at beginning of pregnancy?

- reabsorbed, not viable to have such a small litter

28

What are liekly causes of mummifeid foetuses/stillbirths of all one size?

uterine environment affected at one time (stress or fever, toxic or nutiritonal causes)

29

At hat age are foetuses immunocomeptetn?

70d

30

What will piglets >35d dying look like?

Mummified through to sillborn (pig like) as ossification has begun.

31

How may environment affect pregnancy?

- sunburn -> PG release and abortion

32

Waht may cause abortion?

- micronutrient vet E and A
- mycotoxins
- oestrogens?

33

What are SMEDI type problems usually caused by?

- Parvo
- enteroviruses

34

DOes parvo cause abortion?

NOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
causes SMEDI

35

How may parvovirus be controlled?

Vax 8 weeks before service on first occasion [and 2 weeks before for subsequent boosters ?? NOT NECESSARY! long duration of immunity from initial vax]

36

What type of immmunity is aimed for with parvo virus?

- odd mummified foetus to show it is endemic in the herd
- otherwise at risk of explosive outbreak

37

PAthogens causing equential embreyonic death?

- PRRS
- SIV (swine influenza )
- Erysipelas (vasculitis)
- Leptospirosis (sigificance debatable)
- PCV2?
> notifiable diseases
- AD, CSF, ASF

38

How does smedi differ to sequential embreyonic death?

DOnt know ! Look up

39

What is blue ear disease? Is it common?

Porcine repro and resp syndrome
- rare now

40

WHat do you vax pigs for? What else should be done at this time?

- parvo
- erysipelas (esp outdoor and smallholding definitely)
- PCV2
+clostridia for outdoor pigs (cuases sudden death but not repro disorders)

- paired blood sample 2-3weeks apart (freeze serum in clotted tube) no need to test unless something goes wrong
- check for rising titres

41

How can you estimate gestational age?

- crown rump length
21 + (3xcrown/rump length(cm))
= days

42

Lab investigations - what samples should be sent off?

3 foetuses minimal
- stomach contents
- liver (risk of contamination in post)
- chill dont freeze

43

targets for abortion, mummified and still born/litter

- 1% abrtion
- 2% mummification
- 7% stillborn

44

When is vaginal prolapse seen?

PRE farrowing

45

Tx vaginal prolapse

- purse string suture or Buhner suture
- ABx
- NSAIDs (aspirin licensed)

46

What is Zearelenone toxicity?

OEstrogenic consumption -> herd problems

47

WHat does borwn staining in the trachea indicate?

Meconium inhalation - dystocia and distress during birth

48

WHen does corneal opacity (blue appearance) occour?

24hours post mortem

49

What is the commonest cause of intra-partum death?

- prologned farrowing
- last 3rd of partuiriton piglets
- NOT infectious

50

Why iis temperature regulation difficult inthe farrowing house?

- piglets get cold eassily
- sows overheat easily

51

Common causes of postparturient death?

- chilling
- overlying

52

How do piglets choose their nipple?

Stick to the one they first choose - will not go to free teat

53

What is AIAO?

all in all out - disease control
- good practice
- do not leave smaller piglets behind (likely to be the most diseased!)

54

What mechanical problems are common in farrowing houses?

- Carbon monoxide poisoning from faulty heaters
- faulty electrics where farmers have fiddled

55

COngential abnormalities

- lack of anus (atresia ani)
- splay leg
-

56

How should OT be given?

2-5IU in a drip (want small doses frequently)

57

How regularly should pigelts be born?

every 20 minutes

58

Is assisstance indicated for a first farrowing sow?

No - will make repeats more likely in subsequent farrowing

59

When is uterine prolapse seen?

post farrowing
- bladder often come ouut too
- catheterise before internalising

60

can you rectal a sow?

Yes provided not a gilt

61

When does hypocalceimia occour?

Post partum

62

How many teats shouuld a pig have?

14

63

WHat is a common cause of agalactiae?

lack of water
- dry chalky vulva
- dired up mammary glands