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Flashcards in PD in Farm Animals Deck (20):
1

what is PD useful for?

- time for drying off of cattle, parturition date
- accurate feeding of sheep based on no. of foetuses

2

What are the 4 broad methods of PD?

- non-return to oestrus in polyoestrus species
- measurement of hormones [innaccurate]
- detection of gravid uterus (manual palpation/ultraosund/radiography)
- ID changes in gross and microoscopic structure of genital system

3

What prevents luteolysis in the pregnant cow? From what day is this produced?

IFNtau from d13

4

What stage of pregnancy are the majority of pregnancy losses?

Before 21d

5

Give the 4 specific methods of pregnancy detection in the cow

- Non return to oestrus after service 18-24d
- B mode real time ultrasound from d30 (when embreyp detaches from uterus wall, v. innaccurate unless experienced)
- P4 in plasma and milk d21-24
- Membrane slip of chorioallantois on palpation from d33 OR disparity in horn size from d35 OR palpation of foetus from d45--60 OR presence of placentomes d80

6

What is the amnion wrt the foetus?

Small ball surounding foetus

7

What is the blood supply to the uterus? How may this assist PD?

middle uterine a. can be palpated in broad ligament with fremitus

8

What i produced after d 105 that can be used to detect pregnancy?

- foeto-placental unit produces oestrone sulphate - detectable in milk and plasma

9

At what stage post insemination can P4 be used to PD?

d18-d24 - if not pregnant, P4 will be low
if pregnant, P4 will be high
- BUT If high, may be due to other reason! so more a test for NON-pregnancy

10

What is the best substance to test for P4 in?

milk - higher concentrations than plasma

11

Potential causes of high P4 in non-pregnant cow ?

- Luteinised cysts
- persistent CL
- Error in ID?/labelling
- shorter than normal oestrus cycle
- incorrect AI timing
- embreyo mortality
- inadequate sample mixing

12

How does the non-pregnant uterus appear on US?

highly folded with no lumen

13

What may fluid in the uterus indicate?

- oestrus
- pregnancy
- endometiritis

14

By hat day of pregnancy does msot of the pregnant horn has chorioallantois?

d35

15

What does membrane slip help to differentiate/

PYo and pregnancy

16

Why may disparity in horn size give false positives?

- incomplete involution
- fluid in horns
- pyometra
- mucometria
- hydrometria

17

How may oestrone sulphate be detected?

- blood sample from d120 (potentially from d105)

18

How may pregnancy be detected in the ewe?

- Non-return to oestrus 16-19d after service
- plasma P4 15-18d after service
- Transabdo B- Mode US from d30 (no. foetuses from d45-50)
- doppler US d50
- vaginal biopsy
- caudal uterine a. palaption d60
- radiography

19

PD specifics for goats

- failure to return to oestrus d21 after service
- milk/plasma P4 d21 (false positice in pseudoprganancy)
- oestrone sulphateplasma/milk d50
- transab B modeUS from 30d
- abdo palpation from d60

20

PD specifics for sow

- non-return to oestrus d18-22 after service
- plasma P4 16-24d after service
- transrectal B mode US d12
- oestrone sulphate plasma 24-28d after service
-vaginal biopsy 18-22d post service
- rectal palpation 30d
- transabdo B mode US from 24d
- transabdo A mode (audio) from d30
- transrectal doppler US from d25