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Flashcards in Male reproductive system Deck (71):
0

Sexual reproduction is a process by which in which organisms produce offspring by means germ cells called ...

gametes

1

.....produces one cell with one set of chromosomes from each parent cells called ....

Germ fertilization
Gametes

2

organs of reproduction that produce gametes and secrete hormones

Gonads
Testes for male
Ovaries for female

3

organ produces sperm and secrete hormones

Testes

4

Organ Transport, receive and store gametes

ducts (ductus epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra)

5

Produce materials that support gametes and facilitate their movement

seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands

6

assist in the delivery of gametes

Supporting structures include the scrotum and penis

7

4 Function of the male reproductive system

1. The testes produce sperm and male sex hormones testosterone
2. the ducts transport, store and assist in maturation of sperm
3. the accessory sex glands secrete most of the liquid portion of sperm
4. The penis contains the urethra a passage way for ejaculation of semen and excretion of urine

8

specialized branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system

Gynecology

9

specialized study for male reproductive system

Andrology

10

specialized study of urinary sytem

Urology

11

A cutaneous out-pouching of the abdomen that supports the testes internally

scrotum

12

a vertical septum divides it into two sacs

scrotal septum: each sac contains a single testis

13

The name of the muscle causes wrinkling found in scrotal septum

Dartos muscle

14

How many degree from the body temperature required for the sperm to survive?

3 degrees lower than core body temperature

15

Which muscle elevates testes (to cool)?

Cremaster muscle in spermatic cord

16

Serous membrane derived from the peritoneum partially covers the testes

Tunica Vaginalis

17

Dense white capsule found internal to Tunica Vaginalis

Tunica albuginea - septa form 200-300 compartments called lobules

18

each lobule is filled with ....

2- or 3 seminiferous tubules where sperm are formed (spermatogenisis)

19

2 main types of sperm development cells

Spermatogenic cells - the stem cell type that gives rise to mature sperm; note: final maturation in epididymis

Sertoli cells (aka sustentacular cells - support "spermatogenesis")

20

Spermatogenic cells

Primordial germ cell sin yolk sac migrate at 5th week to testes
Differentiate into spermatogonia - stay dormant until puberty
cells mature progressively as they move toward lumen of seminiferous tubule.

21

Order of sperm maturation

Spermatogonium - primary spermatocytes - secondary spermatocyte - spermatid - sperm cells or spermatozoon

22

Sertoli cells

Deep to the basement membrane tight junctions join neighbouring Sertoli cells to form the blood testis barrier that prevents an immune response against the surface antigens of the developing sperm cells
- Protect, support, and nourishing developing sperm
- Releases inhibin; regulate testosterone and FSH (Follicle stimulating Hormone)
Produce fluid for sperm transport
-phagocytose excess spermatids cytoplasm as development proceeds
-release sperm into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules

23

What Sertoli cells form

Blood testis barrier

24

What Sertoli cells release

inhibin, regulate testosterone and Focllicle stimulating hormone)

25

Leydig cells

AKA Interstitial cells
Located in the spaces between adjacent seminiferous tubules
responsible for producing and secreting androgens, mainly Testosterone.

26

Sperm development

Approx 75 days
Spermatogenesis

27

Decent of Testes

Testes develop near kidney on posterior abdominal wall
They descend into scrotum by passing through inguinal canal - during 7th month of fetal development

28

cryptorchidism

Failure of the testes to descend that may involve one or both testes
-Untreated bilateral cryptochidism results in sterility and a greater risk of testicular cancer (50X)
-Descend spontaneously 80% of time during the first year of life
- if not....surgical treatment necessary before 18 months

29

Failure of the testes to descend that may involve one or both testes

Cryptorchidism

30

Pathway of sperm flow through the ducts of the Testis

Seminiferous tubules - straight tubules - Rete testis - Efferent ducts - Ductus epididymis - ductus (vas) deferens

31

1.5 inch long along posterior border of each testes

Epididymis

32

Epididymys

A comma shaped organ with Head, body and tail region
Multiple efferent ducts become a single ductus epididymis in the head region (20 foot tube if uncoiled)
Tail region continues as ductus deferens.

33

Ductus Epididymis

Line with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and layer of smooth muscle; propels sperm onward

Is the site of sperm maturation and storage
Motility increases over 2 week period

34

Where the sperm stored and for how long? What happens after?

Sperm may remain in storage in Ductus Epididymis for 1-2 months after which they are either expelled toward the urethra during ejaculation or degenerated and reabsorbed

35

What is the procedure for Male sterilization called?

Vasectomy
Vas deferens cut and tied off
Sperm production continues, sperm degenerate.
100% effective, 40% reversible

36

Ductus (Vas) Deferens

Pathway of 18 inch muscular tube
-ascend along posterior border of epididymis
-passes up through spermatic cord and inguinal ligament
-reaches posterior surface of urinary bladder
-empties into prostatic urethra with seminal vesicle
-Lined with pseudostratified columnar
-Epithelium and covered with heay coating muscle

37

How many lobules in Testis

200-300

38

What structures passing to and from the testes

Spermatic cord including
-testicular arteries
-pampiniform plexus of veins
-Automomic nerves
-Lymphatic vessels
-Ductus (vas) deferens
-Cremaster muscle

39

Which structures forms Ejaculatory duct

Seminal vesicles and Ductus deferens

40

What is the function of Ejaculatory ducts

Eject spermatozoa into a prostatic urethra
Adds fluid to prostatic urethra just before ejaculation
about 1 inch long

41

what is the function of Urethra and different type of Urethra

8 inch long passage way for urine and semen
-Prostatic urethra
Membranous urethra (passes through Ureogenital diaphragm)
Spongy urethra (through corpus spongiosum)

42

What is inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is 2 inch long tunnel through the 3 muscles of the anterior abdominal wall
- originates at deep inguinal ring and ends at superficial ring

43

What is Hernia

A rupture or separation of a portion of the abdominal wall resulting in the protrusion of a part of an organ (most commonly the small or large intestine)

44

Two types of hernia

Indirect hernia - loop of intestine protruding through deep ring
Direct hernia - loop of intestine pushes through posterior wall of inguinal canal

45

Pair of pouch like organs found posterior to the base of bladder

Seminal vesicles

46

What does seminal vesicle do

70% of semen volume secrete an alkaline (neutralize acid in the male urethra and female reproductive tract), viscous fluid that contain fructose (for ATP production), prostaglandins (contribute to sperm motility and viability), and clotting proteins

47

What causes coagulation of semen after ejaculation

Semenogelin, the protein

48

A donut-shaped gland about the size of a walnut, lies inferior to the urinary bladder

Prostate Gland surrounds the prostatic urethra

49

What Prostate gland secretes

20% of semen volume and contribute to sperm motility and viability, milky, slightly acidic fluid contains
- citric acid (used by sperm for ATP production)
- proteolytic enzymes (such as prostate specific antigen, PSA, pepsinogen, lysozyme, amylase and hyalurnidase) and lead coagulation and subsequent liquefaction of semen
-Seminal plasmin is an antibiotic that may decrease naturally occurring bacteria in the semen and female reproductive tract
-Secretions enter prostatic urethra through many duct openings
-enlarge with age

50

a common group of disorders which may be characterized by symptoms such as difficult urination, urinary frequency ad pain, or which may be asymptomatic

Prostatitis

51

common urological condition caused by the non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland as men get older

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

52

Symptoms of Benign prostatic hyperplasia

- need of frequently empty the bladder
- Difficulty in beginning to urinate
-dribbling after urination ends
-decreased size and strength of the urine stream
- sensation that the bladder is not empty even after urinating
- inability to postpone urination once the urge to urinate begins
- pushing or straining in order to urinate

53

How does doctor check BPH

Digital rectal exam

54

paired, pea-sized gland within the urogenital diaphragm

Bulbourethral or Cowper's glands

55

What does Bulbourethral glands do

5% of semen volume
Secretion contain mucus for lubrication and an alkaline substance that neutralizes acid from urine
Ducts open into spongy urthra

56

what Semen contains

Sperm (spermatozoa, 2.5-5 ml in volume, 50-150 miliion/ml normal sperm count) and seminal fluid from accessory sex gland
which provides are transported, nutrients and neutralizes the acidity of the male urethra and female vagina

Antibiotic, seminal plasmin and prostatic enzymes that coagulate and the liquefy semen to aid in its movement through the uterine cervix

57

What happens to semen after ejaculated

coagulates within 5 min because of semenogelin, main protein, then liquifies in 15 min because of proteolytic enzyme such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), etc

58

What penis contains and what is the role

the urethra and is the passageway for urine and the ejaculation of semen
bulb +Crura = root
body and gland penis

59

Root of penis is

The base of corpus spongiosum enclosed by bulbospongiosus muscle
Crura of penis or ends of corpora cavernosa enclosed by ishiocavernousus muscle

60

The body of penis is composed of

3 erectile tissue masses
1. 2 paired corpora cavernosa penis
2. 1 unpaired corpus spongiosum penis

filled with blood sinuses
lined by endothelial cells
surrounded by smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue

61

Corpora cavernosa

upper paired erectile tissue masses
begins as crura of the penis attached to the ischial and pubic ami and covered by ischiocavernosus muscle

62

Corpus spongiosum

lower unpaired erectile tissue mass
surrounds urethra
beings as bulb of penis covered by bulbospongiosus muscle
ends as glans penis

63

what is corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum covered by

tunica albuginea

64

Glans penis

Enlarged distal end of corpus spongiosum
At the distal end is the external urethral orifice, a small slit
The prepuse or foreskin covers the uncircumcised glans penis

65

Circumsision

removal of prepuse 3-4 days after birth, possibly lowers UTIs cancer and sexually transmitted disease

66

Erection is what reflex

Parasympathetic

67

sexual stimulation causes

dilation of arteries supplying the penis.

68

What mediates local vasodilation of the erection

Nitric oxide
Veins compressed and blood is trapped

69

Ejaculation is what reflex

sympathetic reflex
Muscle contractions close sphincter at base of bladder

70

What contracts during Ejaculation

muscle contractions close sphincter at base of bladder
Peristaltic contractions in the ductus deferens, seminal vesicles,
Ejaculatory ducts and prostate propel semen into the penile portion of the spongy urethra
Ischiocavernous and bubospongiosus promote emission