Respiratory system 1: Terminologies Flashcards Preview

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What is the three steps of Respiration

1. Ventilation (breathing)
2. External (pulmonary) respiration at lung
3. Internal (tissue) respiration (capillary muscle)

1

What is the structure above vocal cords

Upper respiratory tract: nose, nasal cavity, pharynx and associated structures

2

What is the structure below the vocal cords

Lower respiratory tract: larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

3

2 functional divisions of respiratory system

1. Conducting system: consists of a series of cavities and tubes - nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole and terminal bronchioles - that conduct air into the lungs

2. The respiratory portion: consists of the area where gas exchange occurs - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli

4

The bony framework of the nose is

frontal bone, nasal bones and maxillae. Nasal bones make the bridge to hold the nose in a fixed position

5

Which bones forms the nasal cavity

Ethmoid bone (roof)
Maxillae, lacrimal, palatine (floor - hard palate) and inferior nasal conchae bones

6

Respiratory region is

larger, inferior region of nasal cavity, lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with many goblet cells

7

Olfactory region is

smaller, superior region of nasal cavity, olfactory receptors located near to the superior nasal conchae lie in this region, contains cilia but no goblet cells

8

paranasal sinuses and duct

frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus, and ethmoidal sinus
Nasolacrimal ducts

9

What is the function of the paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal ducts

drains mucus and tears into the nasal cavity

10

Anerior most portion of the nasal cavity

nasal vestifule

11

Divides the nasal cavity into Right and Left sides. Made of hyaline cartilage anteriorly but of the vomer, palatine bone and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid posteriorly

Nasal Septum

12

Formed by 3 nasal conchaes

Superior, middle and inferor meatuses

13

Sensory receptors that line the superior nasal conchae to detect olfactory stimuli as well as contains cilia to trap dust particles

Olfactory epithelium

14

what is the function of the nasal conchae and meatuses?

Warm air, trap water molecules on exhalation (moistens)

15

Function of the internal nose structres

The interior structre of the nose are specilized for warming, moistening and filtering incoming air. Receiving olfactory stimuli, and serving as large hollow resonating chambers to modify speech sounds

16

what kind of lining in the nasal cavity

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells lines nasal cavity

17

What is the function of paranasal sinuses?

Open into nasal cavity and lighten skull and resonate voice

18

Which function does not operate in smokers and how does it affect smokers

Cilica do not function and they must cough to release mucus.

19

Rhinoplasty

Surgical procedure in which the structure of the external nose is altered for cosmetic or functional reasons (fracture or septal repair)

20

3 anatomic regions for Pharynx

nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

21

Function of pharynx

passage way for food and air
Resonating chamber for speech production
tonsil (lymphatic tissue)in the walls protects entry way into body

22

Nasopharyx function

From choanae to soft palate - openings of auditory (Eustachian) tubes from middle ear cavity
-adenoids or pharyngeal tonsil in roof
-passage way for air only/respiration only
-pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet

23

Oropharyx funtion

Respiratory and digestive
From soft palate to epiglottis
- fauces is opening from mouth into oropharynx
-palatine tonsils found in side walls, lingual tonsil in tongue
-Common passage way for food and air/digestion and respiration
stratified squamous epithelium

24

Laryngopharyx function

Respiratory and digestive
Extends from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
Common passageway for food and air and ends as esophagus inferiorly
stratified squamous epithelium

25

What is the role o cilia in the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract?

Cilia in Upper respiratory tract move mucus and trapped particles down towards the pharynx
Cilia in the lower respiratory tract move them up toward the pharynx

26

in what region do you find the pharyngeal tonsils, the palatine tonsils and the lingual tonsils

Nasopharynx, post oral cavity/oroph, oropharynx

27

Surgical removal of tonsils

Tonsillectomy

28

The larynx location

passage way that connects the pharynx with the trachea
Anterior to C4 to C6

29

What does the larynx constructed of

3 single cartilages (Thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple), epiglottis to prevent food from entering the larynx, cricoid cartilage)

3 paired cartilages (arytenoid to change in position and tension of the vocal chords, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages to support vocal folds and lateral epiglottis)

30

Larynx lining

Superior to vocal folds is non-keratinized stratified epithelium
Inferior to vocal folds is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium consisting of goblet cells (produce mucus that traps dust) - cilia move mucus toward pharynx

31

Larynx function

Voice production - larynx contains vocal folds (true vocal cords) and ventricular folds (false vocal cords).

32

What does True vocal cord contain

Skeletal muscle (10 intrinsic muscles) and an elastic ligament (vocal ligament)

33

What purpose do false vocal chords serve

Protect. But they function in holding the breath against pressure in the Thracic cavity, such as might occur when a person strains to lift a heavy object

34

Pitch

is controlled by tension on vocal folds
pulled taut by muscles =faster vibration =higher pitch
decrease muscle tension =slower vibration =lower pitch
male vocal folds are thicker and longer so vibrate they slower producing a lower pitch
To increase volume of sound, air must be pushed harder

35

Speech requires

modified sound made by the larynx
Speech requires pharynx, mouth, nasal cavity and sinuses to resonate that sound
Tongue and lips form words

36

Whispering requires

forcing air through almost closed rima glottidis = no vibration so there is no pitch
Oral cavity alone forms speech

37

laryngitis

is an inflammation of the larynx that is usually caused by respiratory infection or irritants

38

who gets cancer of the larynx

almost exclusively found in smokers

39

The location of the Trachea

Larynx to T5 anterior to the esophagus and then splits into primary bronchi. 5 inch long and 1 in diameter

40

Trachea is composed of

smooth muscle and C-shaped rings of cartilage that keep the airway open and is line with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (moisten air)
The cilia of the epithelium sweep debris away from the lungs and back to the throat to be swallowed

41

Layers of the Tracheal wall

Mucosa = pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia and goblet cells
Submucosa= loose connective tissue and seromucus glands
hyaline cartilage = 16 to 20 incomplete rings-open side facing esophagus contains trachealis muscle (smooth) and elastic connective tissue contained within the fibromuscular membrane

42

What purpose does the trachealis mm and the CT serve

solid C-shape rings provide support and maintain patency so tracheal wall does not collapse inward (esp.during inhalation) and obstruct the airway

43

loose connective tissue that binds the trachea to other tissues

Adventitia

44

Tracheostomy and intubation

Reestablishing airflow past in airway obstruction caused by crushing injury to larynx or chest
swelling that closes airway
vomit or foreign object

45

Incision in trachea below cricoid cartilage

Tracheostomy (if larynx is obstructed)

46

passing a tube from mouth or nose through larynx and trachea

Intubation

47

What is significant about the carina

widening or distortion usually indicates a carcinoma of the lymph nodes around the region where the trachea divides

48

which lung is smaller and why

Left is 10 smaller than right due to space occupied by heart

49

which lung is shorter and why

liver pushes up diaphragm on right

50

outer layer of the lung attached to the wall of the thracic cavity

Parietal pleura

51

Inner layer of the lung covering the lung

visceral pleura

52

what is in pleural cavity

a lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes

53

what is called when the pleural cavities filled with air and why

pneumothorax may cause a partial or complete collapse of the lung

54

blood filled pleural cavities

Hemothorax

55

Mediastinal surface of the lung function

blood vessels and airways enter lungs at hilus
Forms root of lungs
covered with pleura (parietal becomes visceral)

56

what structures lie within the mediastinum

Heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, large blood vessels

57

how many primary bronchus devide in each side

Right primary bronchus divides into 3 secondary bronchi
Left primary bronchus divides into 2 secondary bronchi
Right is more vertical, shorter and wider than the left therefore an aspired object is more likely to enter the right primary bronchi

58

Secondary bronchus divide into...

each lung has a total of 10 tertiary bronchi

59

Bronchial tree

Trachea - Primary bronchi- Secondary bronchi - tertiary bronchi - Bronchioles - terminal bronchioles - respiratory bronchioles - Alveolar duct- Alveolar sac - Alveoli

60

lobe of the lung is supplied by

secondary bronchus

61

Each tertiary bronchus supplies....

a triangular shaped unit of the lung called a bronchopulmonary segment. Bronchopulmonary segment is divided into many small compartments called lobules

62

Each terminal bronchiole supplies

a lobule, contains single arteriole, venule a lymphatic vessel and a branching of a terminal bronchiole all wrapped by elastic CT

63

Terminal bronchioles subdivide into

respiratory bronchioles

64

Respiratory bronchioles lined with

simple squamous epithelium

65

Terminal bronchioles mark the end of the

conducting zone and beginning of respiratory zone

66

Histology of Alveolar type I and II

Type I alveolar cells: simple squamous cells. Where gas exchange occurs
Type II alveolar cells: free surface has microvilli, secrete alveolar fluid, which keeps the alveolar cells moist and which contains a component called surfactant.

67

What is surfactant for?

Lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid preventing the collapse of alveoli with each expiration

68

wandering macrophages remove debris in alveoli

Alveolar dust cells

69

4 layers of membrane to cross for gas exchange

1. Alveolar epithelial wall of type I cells
2. Alveolar epithelial basement membrane
3. capillary basement membrane
4. Endothelial cells of capillary

70

surface area of gas exchange

raquetball court approx 70 m squared (900ml of blood can participate in gas exchange at one time)

71

Double blood supply to the lungs

1. deoxygenated blood arrives through pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle. Pulmonary arteries leave ventricle of the heart and go to lungs/pulmonary veins leave the lungs and enter the atrium of the heart
2. Bronchial arteries branch off of the aorta to supply oxygenated blood to lung tissue
-venous drainage returns all blood to heart
-less pressure in venous system
-pulmonary blood vessels constrict in response to low O2 levels as not to pick up CO2 on there way through the lungs

72

A procedure for administering medication as small droplets suspended in air into the respiratory tract

Nebulization

73

what do Asthma attacks or allergic reactions do?

constrict distal bronchiole smooth muscle

74

what happens in response to hypoxia in the lungs

Ventilation - perfusion coupling: diverts pulmonary blood from poorly ventilated areas to well ventilated area

75

Disorder of premature infants in which the alveoli do not have sufficient surfactant to remain open

Respiratory distress syndrome