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Flashcards in Female reproductive system Deck (73):
0

produce oocytes and hormones

Overies

1

Transport 2 oocyte to uterus

Uterine Tubes

2

Site of implantation of fertilized ovum, development of fetus and labour

Uterus

3

receives penis, passageway for birth

Vagina

4

synthesize, secrete and eject milk to nourish new born

Mammary Glands

5

Overies

paired glands resemble unshelled almonds in size and shape
Homologus to the testes

6

Ovaries function

1. produce gametes secondary oocytes that develop into mature ova (eggs), a process called "oogenesis"

2. Produce hormones include progesterone and estrogens (female sex hormones) inhibin and relaxin

7

Each ovary consists of

germinal epithelium
Tunica albugenia - dense irregular connected tissue
Ovarian cortex - dense irregular CT consists of stromal cells consists of ovarian follicles
Ovarian medulla -
Ovarian follicles
Mature (Graafian) follicle
Corpus luteum (yellow body)
Corpus albicans

8

Tunica albugenia

dense irregular Connected tissue

9

Ovarian cortex

dense irregular connected tissue consists of stromal cells consists of ovarian follicles

10

Ovarian medulla

deep to cortex/contains blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves

11

Ovarian follicles

consist of oocytes with surrounding cells (1 layer) called follicular cell, later called "granulosa cells" (several days)

12

Mature (graafian) follicle

Large fluid filled follicle ready to rupture and release 2 oocyte - called ovulation

13

Corpus luteum (yellow body)

contains remnants of mature follicle, produces progesterone, estrogen relaxin and inhibin until it becomes scar tissue called corpus albicans

14

Corpus albiacans

fibrous scar tissue

15

Germinal epithelium

covers the surface of the ovary. It is followed by the tunica albuginea, ovarian cortex contains ovarian follicles

16

suspends uterus to ovaries from side wall of pelvis by the mesovarius

broad ligament

17

anchors ovaries to uterus

ovarian ligament

18

attaches ovaries to pelvic wall

suspensory ligament

19

entrance/exit for blood vessels and nerves

hilum

20

Attaches ovaries to inguinal canal

Round ligament

21

4 parts of Uterine tubes

1. Infundibulum - funnel shaped portion close to ovary
2. Ampulla - lateral 2/3
3. Isthmus - more medial, short narrow thick walled that joins uterus
4. Fimbriae - finger-like projections

22

Uterine Tube function

1. Fimbriae sweep oocyte into tube
2. Cilia and peristalsis move it along
3. sperm reaches oocyte in ampulla
4. fertilization occurs within 24 hours after ovulation
5. zygote reaches uterus about 7 days after ovulation

23

Histology of Uterine tube

Mucosa = ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells provide nutrients
Muscularis = circular and longitudinal smooth muscle - peristalsis helps move ovum down to the uterus
Serosa= outer serous membrane

24

Uterus function

an organ the size and shape of an inverted pear tha functions in the transport of spermatozoa, menstruation, implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of a fetus during pregnancy, and labor
3 inches long by 2 in wide and 1 in thick

25

Anatomical subdivisions of uterus

fundus
body
cervix
Contains uterine cavity accessed by cervical canal (internal and external os)

26

what are cervical Mucus made of

A mixture of water, glycoproteins, lipids, enzymes, and inorganic salts produced by secretory cells of the cervix

Helps with Capacitation: causes sperm cell tail to beat more vigorously

27

What happens Cervical mucus is more think or thin

When thin, is more receptive to sperm
When thick, forms a cervical plug that physically impedes sperm penetration
Mucus supplements the energy needs of sperm

28

normal projection of uterus over the bladder

Anteflexion

29

Posterior tilting of the uterus

Retroflexion

30

Downward displacement of the uterus

Uterine Prolapse
It has many causes and may be characterized as first degree (mild), second degree (marked), and third degree (complete). treat depens on the degree of prolapse

31

Surgical removal of the uterus

Hysterectomy most common gynecological procedure

32

Indication for Hysterectomy

Endometriosis (the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus the tissue enters the pelvic cavity via the open uterine tubes and may be found in any of several sites on ovaries, etc)
Ovarian cysts
Excessive bleeding
Cancer of cervix, uterus or ovaries
Complete hysterectomy removes cervix

33

Degree of Hysterectomy

1. Partial: body of uterus removed, cervix left in place
2. Complete: body and cervix removed
3. Radical: body, cervix, uterine tubes, possibly ovaries, superior vagina, pelvic lymph nodes, supporting structures (ligaments)

34

Blood supply to Uterus

Uterine arteries branch as arcuate arteries and radial arteries that supply the myometrium
Straight and spiral branches penetrate to the endometrium

35

What spiral arteries supply

Stratum functionalis
Their constriction due to hormonal changes starts menstrual cycle

36

Vagina function

As a passage way for sperm and menstrual flow, the receptable of the penis during sexual intercourse and the lower portion of the birth canal
4 inch long tubular, fibromuscular organ lined with muscous membrane that ending at cervix
Situated between urinary bladder and rectum

37

Vagina histology

The mucosa of vagina is continuous with that of the uterus and lies in a series of transverse folds called rugae

Mucosa dendritic cells are Antigen presenting cells that participate in the transmission of viruses (such as HIV) to a female during intercourse with an infected male.

The mucosa contains large stores of glycogen which decompose into organic acids which set up a hostile acid environment for sperm

38

What does Mucosa of vagina contain?

large stores of glycogen - decompose to acids to kill sperm

39

Structures of Vagina

Fornix recess that surrounds the vaginal Attachment to the cervix, where contraceptive diaphragm sits
Mucosa continuous with that of uterus
Mucosal tissue lies in a series folds called rugae

40

External genitilia of female

Vulva, aka Pundenum

41

Structure of Vulva

1. Mons pubis
2. Labia Majora
3. Labia minora
4. Clitoris
5. vestibule
6. vaginal orifice
7. ext. urethral orifice
8. paraurethral gland
9. greater vestibular glands
10. Bulb of the vestibule

42

Fatty pad over the pubic symphysis

Mons pubis

43

Folds of skin encircling vestibule where find urethral and vaginal openings

Labia majora and minora

44

Small mass of erectile tissue

Clitoris

45

Masses of erectile tissue just deep to the labia on either side of the vaginal orifice

Bulb of vestibule

46

Labia majora is homologous to

scrotum

47

Labia minora homologous to

spongy urethra

48

Vestibule homologous to

Membranous urethra

49

Praurethral gland homologous to

Prostate

50

Greater vestibular glands homologous to

bulbourethral glands

51

Bulb of the vestibule homologous to

corpus spongiosum and bulb of the penis in males

52

Diamond shaped area between the thighs in both sexes

Perineum

53

Perineum two triangles

Urogenital triangle and anal triangle
Contains external genitals and the anus

54

Boundaries of Perineum

Anti pubis symphysis, posterior coccyx, lateral ischial tuberosity

55

During child delivery, perineal cut made with surgical scissors

Episiotomy

56

Modified sudoriferous glands contained within each breast that produce milk

Mammary glands

57

What kind of glands mamary glands have?

Modified sudoriferous glands

58

How many lobes do mammary glands have>

15-20 lobes separated by adipose tissue
Each lobe has smaller compartnments called lobules composed of grape like clusters of milk-secreting glands called alveoli

59

grape like clusters of milk secreting glands

alveoli

60

the synthesis, secretion and ejection of milk

lactation

61

Structures of Mammary Glands

Myoepithelial cells
Secondary tubules
Mammary ducts
Lactiferous sinuses
areola
alveoli
Suspensory ligaments

62

pigmented area around nipple

areola

63

Milk secreting cells found in clusters within lobules

Alveoli

64

surround alveoli and promote milk expression

Myoepithelial cells

65

Connect alveoli to the nipple

Mammary ducts

66

an expansion of the mammary duct that accumulates milk and the base of the nipple

Lactiferous sinuses

67

Suspend breast from deep fascia of pectoral muscles (aging & cooper's droop)

Suspensory ligaments

68

most common cause of breast lump

Fibrocystic disease
one or more cysts (fluid-filled sacs)
Thickening of alveoli (clusters of milk-secreting cells develop)

69

Cause of Fibrocystic disease

hormonal imbalance
Excess of estrogen or deficiency of progesterone in the postovullatory phase
Result is lumpy, swollen and tender breast a week before menstruation begins

70

Surgical procedure to increase breast size and shape

Breast Augmentation
filled with saline or silicone gel
Implant under breast tissue or pec major muscle

71

A surgical procedure that removes fat, skin and glandular tissue to reduce breast size

Breast reduction

72

Which age group most common with fibrocystic diseases

30-50