Muscular Tissue Self-Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscular Tissue Self-Quiz Deck (50):
0

Somatic motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates is a ...

Motor unit

1

Wasting of muscle is ...

Muscular atrophy

2

The replacement of skeletal muscle fibers with scar tissue is ...

Fibrosis

3

The synaptic end bulbs of somatic motor neurons contain synaptic vesicles filled with ...

Acetylcholine

4

Ability of muscle cells to respond to stimuli by producing electrical impulses:

Excitability

5

Sequence of events resulting in muscle contraction:

Nerve impulse,
release of acetylcholine,
muscle action potential,
release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum,
calcium ion binding to troponin,
power stroke with actin and myosin binding and release

6

The brief delay between stimulus and contraction of muscle is ...

Latent period

7

Contractile motor protein that binds to actin

Myosin

8

Regulatory protein that blocks myosin from binding to actin while muscle is relaxed

Tropomyosin

9

Contractile protein containing myosin binding sites

Actin

10

Regulatory protein that hold tropomyosin in place

Troponin

11

Protein within sacroplasmic reticulum that binds with calcium

Calsequestrin

12

Structural protein that connects Z-disc to M-line; highly elastic and extensible

Titin

13

Structural protein that forms the M-line by binding to titin and holding myosin ends together

Myomesin

14

Structural protein that forms the Z-disc, binding to ends of titin and ends of actin

Alpha-actinin

15

Structural protein wrapped around thin filament anchoring them to Z-disc

Nebulin

16

Structural protein that links sarcomeres to membrane proteins in the sarcolemma

Dystrophin

17

A band

Part of sarcomere that extends the entire length of myosin thick filaments and does not change in length during contraction;
part of thin filaments are found here

18

I band

The part of sarcomere that does not include any myosin thick filaments, and shortens with muscle contraction

19

H zone

Center part of A band that contains only myosin thick filaments

20

M line

Midline of sarcomere where myosin ends meet one another

21

Z disc

Found between sarcomeres

22

Decreased tension in the sarcomere occurs when ...

over stretched or too short

Myosin heads cannot contact actin

23

Maximal tension occurs when what is optimized?

Zone of overlap,
where the myosin and actin filaments maximize their contact

24

Four sources of ATP for muscle contraction

Creatine phosphate,
glycolysis,
anaerobic cellular respiration,
aerobic cellular respiration

25

Is ATP required to bind myosin to actin
OR to release myosin from actin?

Both!
ATP hydrolysis is required to reorient myosin heads so they can bind to actin,
and ATP binds to the myosin head to detach is from the actin.
The contraction cycle continues as long as ATP and sufficient calcium ions are available

26

Epimysium

Outermost connective tissue that surrounds entire muscle

27

Perimysium

Dense irregular connective tissue separating groups (fascicles) of muscle fibers within a muscle

28

Endomysium

Areolar connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers

29

Sarcomere

Contracting unit of skeletal muscle fiber

30

Synapse between motor neuron and muscle fiber

Neuromuscular junction

31

Red-coloured oxygen-binding protein found only in muscle fibers

Myoglobulin
Releases oxygen when needed by mitochondria for ATP production

32

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Stores calcium ions within muscle cells

33

Sarcolemma

Plasma membrane of muscle fiber

34

Sarcoplasm

Cytoplasm of muscle fiber

35

Has intercalated discs

Cardiac muscle

36

Striated muscle

Skeletal and cardiac

37

Contraction begin slowly and lasts for long periods

Smooth muscle

38

Extended contraction due to prolonged calcium delivery from sarcoplasmic reticulum and interstitial fluid

Cardiac muscle

39

Autorhythmicity only exhibited in what type of muscle?

Cardiac and visceral smooth

40

Which muscle type has greatest capacity for regeneration?

Smooth muscle, via pericytes, stem cells found near capillaries and small veins

41

Regulatory proteins for cardiac muscle tissue

Troponin and tropomyosin, same as for skeletal muscle

42

Calmodulin

Regulator protein for smooth muscle tissue

43

Sustained contraction of muscle

Fused (complete) tetanus

44

Larger contractions resulting from stimuli arriving at different times

Wave-summation

45

Concentric, isometric, eccentric

Shortening,
same length,
lengthening muscle during contraction

46

Sustained, but wavering contraction with partial relaxation between stimuli

Unfused (incomplete) tetanus

47

Continual involuntary activation of skeletal muscle gives ...

Muscle tone

48

Recovery oxygen uptake

Amount of oxygen needed to restore the body's metabolic conditions back to resting levels after exercise

49

Stress-relaxation response

Smooth muscle action maintaining contractile function even while stretched