Flashcards in Marriage and Sex- Textbook Deck (88):
Where is human sexuality rooted?
In our biological nature, but it is also a cultural construct.
What is homosexuality?
Sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the same sex.
What is sexual orientation?
The biological and psychological makeup of an individual
What is sexual identity?
The identity a person takes based on his or her sexual preferences.
True or False: In may cultures, both in the past and in the present, homosexual behaviour is viewed as natural and is even expected?
What are three examples of cultures where homosexuality is accepted and practiced?
In ancient Greece and Rome, homosexuality was considered socially acceptable behaviour, as it is today in Papua New Guinea, where young men undergo initiation rites that include an element of homosexuality.
Describe homosexual behaviour between Sambia males in Papua New Guinea.
This same-sex behaviour lasted only until the male married and women and produced children. These partnerships were not for life.
- these rituals are referred to as "boy-inseminatio"
- semen was believed to give the boys strength and warrior prowess and to help them grow into masculine, adult males
What are the "two-spirited" people?
Sexual identities of some men and women are ambiguous, fitting into neither the female nor the male gender.
- Two-Spirits and a dream, legitimize their choice to become another gender.
- Fulfilled important social, religious, and economic roles.
- enjoyed a special status in their community
What are the 19th Century Chinese sisterhood in the province of Guangdong?
- involved thousands of women, who entered into sexual relations with other women and who vowed before their goddess never to marry a man
- served as support networks, whose members lived in cooperate houses.
- following the victory of the Red Army in 1949, the sisterhoods were banned and many of the women fled to other countries.
What is the difference between "permissive" cultures and "restrictive" cultures?
"Permissive" cultures tend to view same-sex relationships with more tolerance than "restrictive" cultures.
A 1951 study:___cultures, found that___% recognized male homosexual activity as normal and socially acceptable.
What are two major trends western social scientists have noticed with sex?
1) more people are entering into sexual relationships outside marriage
2) women are gaining greater control over their sexual lives
What is marriage?
The social institution under which a man and woman, or partners of the same gender, live as husband and wife by legal commitments and establish a claim to sexual access to each other.
What percent of societies prohibit all sexual involvement outside marriage?
What are the 3 Nayar transaction?
1) tail-tying ceremony: shortly before a girl experienced her first menstrual cycle, joined the girl with a young man in an temporary union for a few ays. This transaction stablished the girl's eligibility for sexual activity with mender household approved of, and she officially became an adult
2) Occurs when a woman enters into a continuing sexual liaison with an approved man. Man had to present her with gifts 3 times each year.. Clearly specified who had sexual rights to whom so as to avoid conflict .
3) When a women becomes pregnant, a man would formally acknowledge paternity. He did this by making gifts to the woman and the midwife. The child's education and support were the responsibility of the child's mother's brothers, with whom the child and the mother lived. This transaction established the child's legitimacy
What are affinal kin?
relatives by marriage.
Is anything about the Nayar culture comparable to the North American Family
What is a Nayar household composed of?
The group that forms the household does not include affinal kin, or individuals joined in a conjugal bond established y marriage. Among the Nayar, the household is composed wholly of what we often call "blood " relatives, technically known as consanguineal kin.
What is a conjugal bond?
The bond between a man and a woman who are married.
What is consanguineal kin?
Relatives by birth -- that is, "blood" relatives.
What is the incest taboo?
The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals,usually parent-child and inter sibling relations at a minimum.
True or False: It has been documented that human beings raised together have less sexual attraction for one another.
What is the instinct explanation?
Sometimes known as "familiarity breeds contempt," this explanation suggests that long-term association with family members discourages sexual interest.
What is female circumcision?
The removal of all or part of a female's genitalia for religious, traditional, or socioeconomic reasons
What is psychoanalytical explanation?
Incest taboos are an attempt by offspring to repress their sexual feelings toward their parents of the opposite gender.
What is the genetic explanation?
Inbreeding is forbidden because cultural groups recognize the potential for impaired offspring.
Is it true that inbreeding can increase desired characteristics?
It is true that undesirable effects show up sooner with inbreeding?
What would happen without genetic diversity (the incest taboo)?
A preference for a genetically different mate does tend qomaintaina higher level of genetic diversity within a population, and in evolution this generally works to a species' advantage. Without genetic diversity, a species cannot adapt biologically to a changing environment when and if this becomes necessary.
What is the social explanation?
Sometimes known as the "peace in the family" theory , this explanation suggests that competition overrates would interfere with normal family factious, such as acquiring adequate food resources.
What type of marriage was preferred in Roma Egypt?
What is endogamy?
Marriage within a particular group or category of individuals
True or false: for millions of years our ancestors, living in small groups, practiced exogamy, that is, marriage outside the group.
Why did our ancestors practice exogamy?
In order to establish alliances and, perhaps, in recognition of the possible harmful effects of interbreeding.
In a sample of 129 societies,___had specific rules against parent-child or sibling incest. ___that number,___, had explicit rules to control activity with cousins, in-laws, or both.
What is exogamy?
Marriage outside the group
True or false: A society that practices exogamy at one level may practice endogamy at another.
What did Sir Edward Taylor theorize in the 19th century about the incest taboo?
Alternatives to inbreeding wire either "marrying out or being killed out," now known as the cooperation explanation of the incest taboo.
What is the cooperation explanation?
Forcing people outside their familial unit
What are common law marriages?
Legally recognized after a couple has been living together for one year.
What are "the relationship between two persons who are cohabiting in a conjugal relationship, having so cohabited for a period of at least one year"?
common law marriages
Close to___million couples were living in common law relationships in 2001, up___percent for 1995.
Which province leads in common-law relationship?
According to the 2006 census, what was the rate of increase for common law marriages compared to married-couple families?
five times faster
What is monogamy?
Marriage in which an individual has one spouse.
Why is monogamy the most common in North America?
Economic rather than social or meal reasons. A many must be fairly wealthy to afford polygyny.
What is polygyny?
The marriage custom in which a man has two ormolu wives simultaneously; a form of polygamy.
True or False: polygyny is permitted in most off the world's cultures.
Where was polygyny especially common?
In cultures that supported themselves by growing crops and where women did the bulk of the farm work.
What is the common living arrangement with polygyny?
Each wife within the household lived with her children in her own dwelling, apart from her co-wives and husband, who occupied other houses within la larger household compound.
What is a polygynous marriage made possible by?
A female-biased sex ration and/or by a mean age at marriage for females significantly below that for males.
Where are polygynous marriages rare?
In cultures where men are more heavily involved in productive work.
True or False: Polygyny was not evident among First Nations groups of Canada.
Why was polygyny common among First Nations groups of Canada, particularly on the Northern Plains?
The hides had to be tanned quite quickly or they lost their value and could not be sold. This was too much work for any one woman. Thus hunter took more than one wife.
What is polyandry?
The marriage of one woman to two or more men simultaneously
Why is polyandry rare?
Perhaps because men's life expectancy is shorter than women's and partly (again perhaps) because male infant mortality is high. Thus, a surplus of men in a society does not occur.
Few than how may societies are known to have favoured polyandry as a form of marriage?
Fewer than a dozen
What are the benefits of polyandry?
- the marriage of brothers to a single woman averted the danger of constantly subduing farmlands among all the sons of any one landholder (in Tibet)
- provided the household with an adequate pool of male labour
What is group marriage?
Marriage in which several mane and women have sexual access to one another. Occurs rarely
What is levirate?
The marriage custom whereby a widow marries a brother of her dead husband
What was the benefit of levirate?
Provided security for the widow and her children and was also a way for the husband's family to maintain their rights over her sexuality and her future children.
What is sorority?
The marriage custom whereby a widower marries his dead wife's sister
What are the benefits of levirate and sorority?
The relationship between the two families was maintained even after a spouse's death.
What is serial monogamy?
A marriage form in which a man or a woman marries or lives with a series of partners in succession
What percent o the population was divorced in Canada in 2006?
about 5 percent
Where was serial monogamy first described?
in the West Indies and among low-income urban arian Americans
Why is serial monogamy becoming more common among middle class people?
With the increasing need for women to seek work outside the home,and rising divorce rates.
By the 2006 Canadian census, there were some___,million single-parent families, and___percent of families with children were headed by a single parent; also, roughly___out of___of the children in single-parent families lived with a female parent.
True or false: single-parent households outnumber nuclear family households.
True or false: The Western egalitarian ideal than an individual should be free to marry whomever he or she chooses is an unusual arrangement, certainly not one that is universally embraced.
Why do marriages tend tone arranged for the economic and political advantage of the family unit?
Because marriage involves a transfer of rights between families, including rights to property and rights over the children, as well as sexual rights.
What is patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage?
Marriage of the children of two brothers.
What was the benefit to patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage?
property was retained within the male line of descent
What type of marriage was common within the royal families.
patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage
What is matrilateral cross-cousin marriage?
Marriage of a woman too her father's sister's son or of a man too his mother's brother's daughter (her cross-cousin on the paternal side, his cross-cousin on the maternal side).
What was the benefit to matrilateral cross-cousin marriage?
Help establish and maintain ties of solidarity between social groups
What is patrilateral cross-cousin marriage?
Marriage of a man to his father's sister's daughter.
What is he benefit to patrilateral cross-cousin marriage?
Kept wealth within the family and enabled individuals to marry someone of equal rank.
What is bride-price?
Compensation the groom or his family pays to the bride's family on marriage.
Where does bride-price usually occur?
This usually happens in patrilocal groups where the bride becomes a member of the household in which her husband grew up; this household will benefit from her labour as well as from the offspring she produces. Thus, her family must be compensated for their loss.
What is bride service?
A designated period after marriage when the groom works for the bride's family.
What is dowry?
Payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage, either to her or to her husband
How does dowry occur in Canada?
In the form of the custom that the brides family pays the weeding expenses.
What is a woman's share of parental property that, instead of passing to her on her parents' death, is distributed other at the time of her marriage.
What is two of the functions of a dowry?
- to ensure a women's support in widowhood
- the dowry will bring women incapable of bearing children protection against poverty and or desertion
What are often the strongest motivation to marry?
What is causing North Americans to worry about the future of marriage and the family in the contemporary world.
rising divorce rates