Flashcards in Kinship and Descent- Lecture (2) Deck (68):
Which 4 descent groups emerge in societies with unilinear descent?
Which 3 types of societies did descent groups emerge?
Descent groups emerged in horticultural societies, pastoral, and intensive agricultural societies.
Why do forgers, in general, not track descent?
Foragers do not need to track descent (only own about 11 kilos per person). There was no practical need because they did not need to control ownership, resources, etc.
What does kinship revolve around?
ownership and access to resources
Made up of consanguineal kin who can trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor.
What represents an alliance of two lineages?
Marriage of a group member
What does lineage exogamy maintain?
Lineage exogamy maintains open communication and fosters exchange of information among lineages.
Are lineages made up of few or many generations?
How many generations make up a lineage in rural China?
What are 6 corporate actions taken by lineages?
1) manage resources
2) redistribute goods
3) provide services
4) organize labour
5) assign status
6) regulare external relations
What is lineage fission?
When lineages split
What appears when lineages split?
What constitutes a clan?
two more lineages will constitute a clan
Why do lineages split?
As new generations are born, tensions arise. Lineages will split
When are clans created?
Created when a large lineage group plots into new, smaller ones.
From what do clans claim descent?
Members claim descent from a common ancestor without knowing the genealogical links to that ancestor.
What can "chronological depth" of a clan span?
Unlimited number of generations the track of which can be lost.
What is a difference between a clan and a lineage?
Usually folks don't remember the exact individuals they descent from in a clan (difference from lineages)
In what 4 ways are clans non-corporate in their nature?
1) because of dispersed membership they provide individuals with entry rights to another group
2) emphasize exogamy when it comes to marriage
3) own/share ceremonies, not property
4) clans depend on symbols to sustain their identity (totems, for example, in north-west Canadian cultures)
Lineages typically have___that are more intimately experienced than in clans.
What do clans depend on to sustain themselves?
What is the definition of a phratries?
A unilinear descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether probably or not.
What is the definition of a moietie?
- (after a French world 'half')
- In cultures where entire society is divided into two groups (moieties)
What is 'kindred'?
A small circle of paternal and maternal relatives formed in cultures with bilateral descent.
What is a kindred always defined in relation to?
Defined always in relationship to ego..
True or False: a kindred is never the same for any two persons except siblings.
What percent of foraging cultures are bilateral or ambilineal?
What fraction of pastoral societies are patrilineal?
Where is matrilineal descent more likely to be found? What percent of this type of society is matrilineal?
What are the explanations for the fact that patrilineality emerged?
Improves success in intergroup warfare
Why is horticulture more likely to develop matrilineal descent?
- long-distance warfare or trade
- (because men are away from home more and women are needed to maintain household)
What are the 4 types of kinship systems?
- the Eskimo system
- the Hawaiian system
- the Iroquois system
- the Omaha system
Who first proposed the kinship systems? When?
Lewis Henry Morgan in 1871
There is a general consensus amongst anthropologists that there are___basic kinship systems.
In the Eskimo system, 'mother' and 'father' are reserved for who?
Who are 'aunt' and 'uncle' in the eskimo system?
Used for all brothers and sisters of the parents
In the eskimo system, the terms 'sister' and 'brother' are reserved for who?
biological siblings only
Who is the term 'cousin' reserved for in the Eskimo system?
Reserved for all children of the ego's uncles and aunts
Which system of kinship is closest to the one we use in English?
the Eskimo system
True or False: The Eskimo system is common, culturally speaking.
What three groups is the Eskimo system common amongst?
- English kin terms
The Eskimo system is common in societies with___descent and where___is important.
True or False: The Eskimo system is a rare system.
In the Hawaiian system, who is referred to as 'mother' and 'father'?
Are used for all in ego's ascending generation
What is everyone in ego's generated called in the Hawaiian system?
brother or sister
In the Hawaiian system, are there the terms for English' cousins, uncles, and aunts?
The Hawaiian system in common in societies with___descent.
What is absent in the Hawaiian system?
strong unilinear descent
The Hawaiian system rules out marriage between___.
Which cultures the Hawaiian system found?
Coastal Salish, Polynesian cultures
In the Iroquois system, who is 'father'?
Includes father's brother, but not mother's brother
In the Iroquois system, who is 'mother'? q
Includes mother's sister, but no father's sister
Who does 'uncle' refer to in the Iroquois system? Who does 'aunt' refer to in the Iroquois system?
- 'Uncle' refers to only mother's brother
- 'Aunt' is used only for father's sister
Who are 'brother' and 'sister' in the Iroquois system?
Brother and sister are used for children of father's brother and mother's sister (parallel cousins)
In the Iroquois system, 'cousins' are___cousins.
The Iroquois system is associated with___descent.
What kinship system is found in Iroquois, Yanomamo, and rural China?
The Iroquois system
Who are preferred as marriage partners in the Iroquois system?
Who is 'father' in the Omaha system?
father includes father's brother, but not mother's brother
Who is 'mother' in the Omaha system?
Mother includes mother's sister, but not father's sister.
Who is 'uncle' in the Omaha system?
'Uncle' refers to only mother's brother.
Who is 'aunt' in the Omaha system?
'Aunt' is used only for father's sister.
What are parallel cousins called in the Omaha system?
brother and sister
What are cross cousins referred to as in the Omaha system?
- Mother's brother's daughters are called mother
- Mother's brother's sons are called mother's brother
The Omaha system is associated with strong___descent.
True or False: The Omaha system ignores distinction between generations.
In the Omaha system, parallel cousins___with children.