Flashcards in Family and Household- Text Deck (68):
What is the definition of family (from the text)?
A married or common law couple with or without children, or a lone parent with dependent children May sometimes include non-kin members.
What does "family" from the 14th-century Latin?
Designating the members (or servants) of a household -- has long been regarded as a core social institution.
What is the definition of culture-bound?
The interpretation of other practices and beliefs from the standpoint of one's own culture. A culture-bound interpretation can be biased and unwilling to accept the validity of alternative phenomena.
What is consanguine family?
A family unit consisting of a woman, her dependent offspring, and the woman's brothers.
What is a conjugal family?
A family consisting of two or more married or common law people, including same-sex people, with their dependent children.
What is a nuclear family?
A married or common-law couple and their dependent children
What is a polygynous family?
A family consisting of a man and his multiple wives, along with their dependent children.
It is difficult to develop an inclusive definition of family that is not______.
What type of family is the Nayar marriage system?
consanguine (or "blood") family
What is the living arrangement of the Nayar?
Men and women marry but do not live together as members of one household. Rather, they spend their lives in the households they grew up in, with th even "commuting" for sexual activity with their wives.
What relationship does economic cooperation between men and women occur between in the Nayar culture?
Economic cooperation between men and women occurs between sisters and brothers rather than husbands and wives.
What are the three types of conjugal families?
1) Nuclear family
2) Polygynous family
3) Polyandrous family
What is a polyandrous family?
A family consisting of a woman and her multiple husbands, along with their dependent children.
What are the roots of the nuclear family? What was the result (purpose)?
- Its roots go back to a series of regulations that the Roman Catholic Church imposed in the 4th century that prohibited close marriages, discouraged adoption, and condemned polygyny, concubinage, divorce, and remarriage.
- The result was to facilitate the transfer of property from families to the Roman Catholic Church.
It is a biological fact that only___percent of all couples will have only daughters and that another___percent will have no children at all.
What are the three family structures identified by Statistics Canada?
1) lone-parent families
2) common law families
3) married couples or nuclear families
What is the fastest growing family structure in Canadian society?
the common law family
True or False: The family as an institution serves the same function cross-culturally
What are the functions of family as an institution, cross-culturally?
Nurturing children and creating cooperative economic unit.
How do children begin learning their culture?
Through enculturation soon after birth. It is the responsibility of parents, and especially mothers.
Overall, a 15 week Ju/'hoansi infant is in close contact with its mother about___percent of the time, compared with___percent for home-reared infants in mainstream Canadian society.
Why is the near constant stimulation of infants important?
Recent studies show that stimulation plays a key role in the "hardwiring" of the brain; stimulation is necessary for the development of the neural circuitry. Nor should the role of frequent nursing be overlooked, since the longer a child is breast-fed , the higher it will score on cognitive tests and the lower its risk of having attention deficit disorder (hyperactivity). Furthermore, breast-fed children have fewer allergies, fewer ear infections, and less diarrhea, and are at less risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
What is an effective way to facilitate economic cooperation between the sexes while at the same time providing for a close bond between mother and child? ?
By establishing residential groups that include adults of both sexes. The differing nature of male and female roles, as these are defined within culture, requires a child to have an adults of the same sex available to serve as a proper model for the appropriate adult role.
What is the household?
The basic residential unit where economic production, consumption, inheritance, childrearing,and shelter are organized and implemented; may or may not be synonymous with family.
What does the typical household consist of?
Often, a household consists of a family along with more distant relatives. Co-residents may be unrelated, such as the service personnel in an elaborate royal household, apprentices in the household of craft specialists, or low-status clients in the households of rich and powerful patrons.
What ist he basic core of the household in the vast majority of human cultures?
What is the form of nuclear family that is most familiar to North Americans?
The independent nuclear family, which in spite of its steady decline is still widely regarded as the "standard" in Canada and the United States.
What are certain parallels that can be drawn between nuclear families in industrials societies and families living under especially harsh environmental conditions?
In both cases, the family is an independent unit that must be prepared to fend for itself; this creates a stronger dependence on one another. Minimal help is available from outside in the event of emergencies or catastrophes. In the event of the mother's or father's death, life becomes precarious for their children. Yet this form of family is well adapted to a life that requires a high degree of geographic mobility.
What is extended family?
A collection of nuclear families, related by ties of blood, that live together in one household.
What was the small nuclear family apart of in earlier, more agrarian era?
part of a larger extended family
Where are extended families most likely to be found?
In cultures with an economy based on subsistence farming. They provide the large labour force necessary to till the soil, tend whatever flocks are kept, and carry out other pat-time economic pursuits considered necessary for existence.
Why did extended families in Canada give way to nuclear families.
Canada became more urbanized.
What are the five residence patterns?
1) Patrilocal residence
2) Matrilocal residence
3) Ambilocal residence
4) Neolocal residence
5) Avunculocal residence
What is a patrilocal residence?
A pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the husband's father's relatives.
What is a matrilocal residence?
A pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality associated with the wife's relatives.
What is ambilocal residence?
A pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence.
What is neolocal residence?
A pattern in which a married couple establishes its household in a location apart from either the husband's or the wife's relatives.
Which cultural patterns lead to a patrilocal residence?
Predominant role for men in subsistence, especially if they own property that can be accumulated, if polygyny is customary, if warfare is prominent enough to make cooperation among men especially important, and if there exists an elaborate political organization in which men wield authority.
In which cultures is a patrilocal residence common?
Cultures the rely on animal husbandry and/or intensive agriculture for their subsistence.
When does a matrilocal residence result?
If ecological circumstances make the women's role predominant in subsistence.
In which cultures is matrilocal residence commonly found?
Most often in horticultural societies, where political organization is relatively uncentralized and where cooperation among women is important.
Why does marriage not usually involve compensation to the groom's family in matrilocal residences?
Because the men usually did not move very far from the family they were raised in, so they were available to help out there from time to time.
What is umbilical residence especially well suited to?
Situations where the economic cooperation of more people than are available in the nuclear family is needed but where resources are limited in some way. Because the couple can join either the bride's or the groom's family, family membership is flexible, and the two can live where the resources look best or where their labour is most needed.
Why is ambilocality a crucial factor for foo foragers?
They find their food in nature and maintain an egalitarian social order, it is a crucial factor in both survival and conflict resolution.
Where is neolocal residence commonly found?
This occurs where the independence of the nuclear family is emphasized. In industrial societies such s Canada, where most economic activity occurs outside rather than inside the family and where it is important for individuals to be able to move where jobs are found, neolocal residence is better suited than any of the other patterns.
What is avunculocal residence?
A pattern in which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother.
Where is avunculocal residence found?
IT is favoured by the same factors that promote patrilocal residence, but only in cultures where descent through women is deemed crucial for the transmission of important rights and property.
What is the residence pattern of the Trobriand Islanders in earlier times?
Avunculocal residence because each individual was a member of a group of relatives who travel their descent through their mother, their mother's mother, and so on, to the one woman all others were descended from. Each of these descent groups held property. These properties were controlled each generation by a male chief or other leader who had inherited these rights and obligations But because descent as traced exclusively through women, a man could no inherit these from his father. Thus, succession to positions of leadership passed from a man to his sister's son. For this reason a man who was in line to take control of his descent group's assets took his wife to live with the one he would succeed -- his mother's brother. This enabled him to observe how the older man cared for his hamlet's affairs, as well as learn the oral traditions and magic he would need to be an effective leader.
What is sororal polygyny?
A man marries several women who are sisters.
What are two ways to revolve conflict in polygynous families?
1) sororal polygyny
2) provide each wife with a separate dwelling within a household compound and perhaps require the husband to adhere to a system of rotation for sleeping purposes.
What are two distinctive structural characteristics that may cause difficulty in polyandrous families?
1) a woman's older husbands are apt to dominate the younger ones
2) fraternal polyandry
What is the problem with fraternal polyandry?
The longest brothers are likely to be considerably younger than their wives, who reproductive years are limited. This reduces a young husband's chances of reproducing successfully, relative to older husbands. Not surprisingly, when polyandrous families break up, it is usually the longer husbands who depart.
What is fraternal polyandry?
A woman marries several men who are brothers.
What are 2 sources of conflict in extended families?
- Decision making in such families usually rests with an older individual, and other family members must defer to the elder's decisions.
- In marrying spouses must adjust their ways to conform to the expectations of the family they have come to live with.
What is a factor that prevents conflict in extended families?
dependence training and the concept of "face or "honour"
What is the concept of "face" or "honour"?
May constitute an especially potent check on the power of senior members of extended families
What is dependence training?
Raising people who are more inclined to be complaint and accept their lot in life than are individuals raised to be independent
In which residence pattern do divorce rates tend to be high? Why?
In cultures that practice matrilocal residence. In some cultures with patrilocal residence, but contrast, divorce may be all by impossible, at least for women (the in-marrying spouses).
Where and why are tensions common in nuclear families?
Modern industrial societies where etc family has lost one of its chief reasons for being: its economic function as a basic unit of production.
What are some tensions in nuclear families (~5)?
- one or both adults in a marriage must seek work outside the family and their world may keep them away for prolonged periods
- the requirement for workers to go where their jobs take them may pull the husband and wife in different directions
- neolocal residence also tends to isolate husbands and wives from both sets of kins. This means that song mothers-to-be must face pregnancy and childbirth without the assistance and support of female kin.
- absence of experienced women within the family as well as a clear model for childrearing
- the importance of the nuclear family itself, in the form of anxieties over all age. Once the children are gone, who will care for the parents in their final years?
Why are female-headed families increasing in North America.
- Young females have chosen to keep infants born outside of a marriage or common law relationship, a dramatic rise in single-parent families headed by women has occurred. Further, in the vast majority of divorce cases (81.3% in Canada), the children remain with their mother.
What has the increase of single-parent families led to the increase of?
The number of women (and, or course, their children) who live below the poverty line.
In 2003, nearly___of all female-headed families in Canada were in a low-income situation.
True or false: Single-parent families are neither new nor restricted to industrialized societies such as Canada.
True or false: These women and children (single-parent families) are the ones most severely affected by cutbacks made in social welfare programs since 1980.
True or False: Since 1996 female-headed family incomes have been falling, patly because of decreased participation of women in the workforce.
Since 1996 female-headed family incomes have been rising, partly because of increased participation of women in the workforce.
Where are female households becoming increasingly common?
In developing countries, too, as development projects increasingly restrict women's ability to earn a living wage.