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What is social stratification?

Social stratification is the division of society into classes (categories) of people that do not have equal access to BASIC RESOURCES, INFLUENCE, and/or PRESTIGE.


What are societies stratified according to?

- sex and gender
- age
- social class
- caste
- ethnicity
- racism
- religion


How does society stratify individuals based on sex and gender?

- separates men and women to varying degrees in different societies
- expectations of gender behaviour and action vary from culture to culture


How can gender behaviour vary from culture to culture (2 ways)?

- in some societies, they may be together much of the time
- in other societies they may spend much time apart, even to the extreme of eating and sleeping separately


Troibiaders are a___descent group.



Describe women in the Iroquois society and how this changed with the Europeans.

- core of community is women
- men and women were equal
- male part of society was never oppressive to women
- this shocked the Europeans
- through missionary work Europeans attempted to redesign the social fabric and relations of Iroquois society by imposing Christian value that women would obey their men.


Describe women and men in the Mundurucu society.

- stories teach them that at one time women were very powerful
- but that particular story has taught them that men, once upon a time, managed to conquer them and are no win control of them


What are age grades?

Are life stages, through which individuals go as they mature.


Childhood -- adolescent -- adulthood -- elders
What is this an example of?

Age grades


What are age sets?

Individuals who move together through a series of life stages comprise age sets. In many societies such groups are sex-based.


What are masai warriors an example of?

age sets


What is often established for moving from a younger to an older age grade?

a transition, a passage


What are Arnold van Gennep's 4 rites of passage?

1) birth rites/baptism
2) circumcision rites
3) wedding rites
4) funeral rites


What are common-interest associations linked with?

linked with rapid social change and urbanization


What roles did common-interest associations assume?

Increasing assumed roles formerly played by kinship or age groups


What is the range of membership in common-interest associations?

may range from voluntary to legally compulsory


Why are common-interest associations necessary?

Because they blow us as humans to network. Create support for ourselves through association and affiliation with others.


Describe women in relation to common-interest associations.

- social scientists used to view women's associations as less developed than men's
- women and their common interest associations have been long responsible for the community well-being in rural Canada


What did Heinrich Schurtz believe about women and common-interest associations?

- women are unsocial beings
- yet, women social circles are often more elaborate than men's
- women associations are less concerned with politics-at-large


Why were common-interest associations and women's participation believed to be nonexistent?

History of women's participation, men's associations were covered by media and are in the archives, whereas women's are not. So scholars continue to be biased towards men's associations because of the material that is available. Despite of the belief that women do not participate in these common interest assertions, this is a false belief, and women have been as actively engaged in these associations as men have, they are just not archived, or etc.


What are the following examples of? :
- neighbourhood associations
- ethnic cultural groups
- home schooling associations (about 400 in Saskatchewan)
- trade unions
- In Soviet Union: Komsomol, or Young Communist League

Common-Interest Associations


When does participation in conventional associations decline?

as online associations are growing in popularity.


What do integrative theories (functionalist theory) believe about why societies construct social hierarchies?

Advance the view that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of modern society.
- Require a wide variety of different jobs and professions


What do exploitative theories believe about why societies constructed social hierarchies?

Advance the view that hierarchy exists because one group of individual seeks to take advantage of another groups for economic purposes
- take advantage of another for economic purposes
- upper class exploits lower class for some benefit
- through policies developed by government and institution to explain why the lower class is being paid less
- bourgeoisie and proletariat (Karl Marx and origin of classes)


What is social stratification?

System where members of society are ranked higher or lower. Social classes, social strata. Institutionalized inequality which results in some groups receiving power, wealth,and prestige. Based on age, gender, class, ethnicity, and race.
- In relation to how different groups have access to wealth, power, and prestige


How do people come to accept social hierarchies as natural?

The problem is that racist and sexist theories and ideologies exist not only in popular culture bu tins scientific and official discourses as well.


What are the following examples of? :
- Nazi ideology and the superiority of the Aryan "race"
- North America and the black/white divide
- Brazil and its 'races'
- Canad and assimilation of Indigenous Peoples

State ideologies constructing the Ideology of Racism


What is the difference between the US census now and the 1880 census?

In the US census they focus on the notion of race. 1880 census classification was different than now --> they had different degrees of "blackness"


How does the Canadian census differ from the American census?

In the Canadian census, people are more so asked about their original and descent as opposed to their race (US census) because Canada is a country built by people of different origins which is why it is still being tracked this way by the national records.


What are two examples of the ideology of racism being supported by scientific research?

1) Carl Linnaeus, 1758, in book General System of Nature pronounced four races (based on skin colour)
2) Samuel George Morton (the US) physician, scientist 1820-1850


What did Samuel George Morton do?

- measured 'cranial capacity' (volume) in 6000 skulls
- according to his measurements:
- 'white' skulls are larger
- 'black' skulls are smaller
- 'American Indian' skulls are
- Supported the belief that biology determined mental capacity


What is an example of Constructing th eIdeology of Racism, and of Biological Determinism?

Morton/Gould controversy
- Samuel gorge Morton's research of 'cranial capacity'
- Stephen Gould, 1977, re-measured the same skulls
- Mortons' sample is not representative and problematic
- There is no difference between Euro-American, African, and Indigenous American skulls


What ist Eugenics?

Philosophy of race improvement through forced sterilization or increased reproduction


What is the theory of natural selection?

- the fittest in society will survive and flourish
- those who are stronger, the nature will allow them to survive longer and flourish


What did Anthropologist decided in 1934 at a meeting about the terms 'race' and 'ethnicity'?

Anthropologists in 1934 at the meeting of anthropologists and ethnologists that the term 'race' was suggested to be replaced by the term 'ethnicity.'


What is social class?

A category of individuals of equal or near equal prestige according to the practiced system of classification.


What are North American lower, middle, upper class, and Indian castes examples of?

social class


What is achieved status?

Earned through endeavour


What is ascribed status?

Status people born into


What status' are at work in North America? What about India?

North America: achieved status, ascribed status
India: ascribed status


What is a caste?

Social class in which membership is determined by birth and fixed for life. Children automatically belong to their parents' caste.


What is the caste system of India related to?

Related to Hinduism, and its doctrine of incarnation


What are the four castes (cranes) and on out-of-caste category in India?

1) Brahmins
2) Kshatriyas
3) Viashas
4) Shudras
5) The Untouchables


What are Brahmins?

priests and scholars


What are Kshatriyas?

nobles and warriors


What are Viashas?

merchants and artisans


What are Shudras?

farmers, certain workers, craftspeople


What are the Untouchables?



What are 3 class indicators?

1) Verbal evaluation
2) Patterns of association
3) Symbolic indicators


What is verbal evaluation?

appraisals or derogative commentary


What is private v.v. public schools an example of?

patterns of association (class indicators)


What is designer clothes or consignment clothes an example of?

symbolic indicators (class indicators)


What are open class societies?

Are those with the easiest mobility


What is the degree of mobility in open class societies related to?

Related to education and/or type of family organization that prevails in a society.


Where is mobility severely limited?

Where extended family is the norm


What is a closed class society?

When you are born in or belong to this or that caste or family, it is almost impossible for you throughout your life to move into a different social class.


What is: perceived differences in culture, national origin, and historical experience by which groups of people are distinguished from others in the same social environment?



What is ethnic identity?

the sense of self on experiences as a member of an ethnic group


What are ethnic groups?

Categories of people who see themselves as sharing an ethnic identity that differentiates them from other groups or from the larger society as a whole.


What are ethnic boundaries?

The perceived cultural attributes by which ethnic groups distinguish themselves from others.


What 3 ideas did Fredrick Barth and his foundational study (based on his ethnography of Pakistan) on ethnicity, "Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of cultural experience (1969)" express?

1) Ethnicity -- socially constructed
2) Ethnic group development based not on geographical or social isolation but on social interaction between the groups
3) The group is defined by an 'ethnic boundary' and not by 'culture stuff that it encloses'


What is 'ethnic stratification?'

When societies are ethnically stratified


What are the following all examples of:
- forced assimilation of Aboriginal societies
- Who are Road Allowance People?
- Ethnic prejudice against immigrants in Canada: Ukrainian internment operations in WWI; Chinese 'head tax' and discrimination; Japanese internment operations in WWII; Recent backlash at Muslim communities

Stratification or discrimination


What is ethnic conflict often tied to?

The rise, development, and collapse of a nation state.


What are contemporary conflicts informed by?

former colonial policies


Who was the Genocide in Rwanda against?

(mostly) by Hutu, (mostly) against Tutsi (1994)


How many Rwandans were slaughtered in a100 day-period?

800 000


How many Rwandans were displaced?

2 million