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What are usually the most important organizational principles in small-scale cultures?

kinship and marriage


How are gender and sex linked?

women bear children, and men place great importance on their sexual prowess
- these biological functions are strongly influenced by cultural attitudes and values


True or False: some division of labour along genre lines is not characteristic of all human groups.



How was the Iroquois society divided along gender lines?

Society was divided into two parts consisting of sedentary women, who resided in their community year-round, and nomadic men, who were seasonally absent. The women living in villages were "blood" relatives of one another.


How were women acknowledged in Iroquois society?

Although masculine activities were considered more prestigious than women's work, women were explicitly acknowledged as the sustainers of life. Moreover, women headed the longhouses, descent and inheritance passed through women, and ceremonial life was centred on women's activities.


What was the role of men in Iroquois society?

Men held leadership positions, but the women of their lineages nominated them for these positions and held veto power over them.


"separate but equal" describes which society?

the Iroquois


How was gender groups in the Mundurucu of the Amazon?

Groupings by gender are even more evident. Here men not only worked apart from women but ate and slept separately of well. The relationship between the sexes was one of opposition.


What has sometimes been called the only universal factor for determining a person's position in society?

Age groupings


What is an age grade?

An organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories during a lifetime.


What is an age-set?

A group of people born in the same time period. Age-sets may hold political,religious, military, or economic power as a group.


How may entry into and transfer out of age grades be accomplished?

Individually, either because of biological changes, such as puberty, or changing social status, such as marriage or childbirth.


What is the passing from the warrior into an elder an example of?



How is elder hood viewed in non-Western societies?

Elder hood is the time when individuals gain freedom from many subsistence activities and when they begin playing a major role in passing the values, beliefs, and social and behavioural norms of their culture on to their grandchildren.


How is the role of elders different in Western societies compared to non-Western societies?

In North America, people rely on the written word, rather than on their elders, for long-term memory. Moreover, some people have become so accustomed to rapid change that they tend to assume that the experiences of their grandparents and others of the oldest generation are hardly relevant in today's world.


What are common-interest associations?

Associations not based on age, kinship, marriage, or territory but that result from the act of joining.


What reflects that reality that individuals, especially in North america, often are separated by physical distance from their brothers, sisters, and age mates.

common-interest associations


What may the goals of common-interest associations be?

Their goals may include recreation, friendship, and the promotion of certain values, as well as the pursuit of power and economic well-being.


Why did scholars, for many years, dismiss women contributions to common-interest associations as less important?

- this kind of thinking is culture bound
- demands of raising and family and their daily activities have not permitted it, and because men, and society, have not always encouraged them to do so.
- earlier in Canada's history, when rural women were limited to the home, in relative isolation, they had little chance to participate in common-interest associations.


What is social stratification?

Institutionalized inequality resulting in some groups receiving differential access to power, wealth,and prestige


What is A system whereby some members of a society are ranked higher or lower relative to other members.

social stratification


What has increased social stratification?

globalization and instant worldwide communications


True or false: social stratification is found in most of the world's cultures, past and present.



What is stratification commonly based on?

age, gender, class, ethnicity, or race


How do anthropologists measure the degree of stratification in a given group?

according to an individuals access to wealth, power, and prestige


What is wealth?

Accumulation of financial resources, material possessions, wives and children, and the potential for future earnings.


What is power?

The ability to reach personal, financial, and professional goals regardless of obstacles.


What is prestige?

The social esteem others hold for an individual.


What are stratified societies?

Societies in which ranking and inequality among members vary


Where is social stratification most common?

In stratified societies


When did stratified societies first arise?

when state level societies, and the ensuing specialization of occupations began some 5000 to 6000 years ago


What is the opposite of a stratified society?

egalitarian cultures


What are egalitarian cultures?

Groups in which members enjoy equal access to resources and positions. They have as much right to a group's resources as any other members. In an egalitarian system, no one can deny a poor hunter his fair share of food, the right to be heard when important decisions re made, or anything else a man is entitled to.


What is the functionalist theory of stratification?

A their suggesting that inequality is necessary to maintain complex societies. Such societies require a wide variety of professions of varying degrees of specialization.


According to which theory is the following true:
To entire the best people into difficult professions that require a great deal of time and sacrifice, there must be incentives at the end of at the long road.

functionalist theory of stratification


What are the weaknesses of the functionalist theory of stratification?

- We do not always reward the professions that are most involved in maintaining society.
- Does not account for the barriers to entering the high-prestige professions
- Assumes that everyone is motivated to seek the highest paying, highest status jobs, when other factors such as a desire for meaningful work and to help others may take precedence. Focusing solely on money reduces humans to what has been termed "Homo economicus"


What is the conflict theory of stratification?

A theory suggesting that a power struggle takes place between eh upper and lower levels of society. Conflict theories contend that people in the upper levels use their influence within governments, industry, and educational and religious institutions to keep others satisfied with their lower status.


What does the conflict theory tend to ignore?

The conflict theory tends to ignore other contributing factors, such as personal choice, ability, and effort.


What is race?

Group of people who are categorized based on biological and behavioural traits.


What is racial stratification?

Often the differences between human groups, whether seen as racial or ethnic, can lead to social inequality, discrimination, and what has commonly become known as racism.


What is racism?

The perception that some groups are biologically and culturally inferior to other groups.


What lies behind racism?



True or False; Racial categories have no validity, what we are really examining is ethnic discrimination nd conflict.



What are 2 acts of institutionalized racism, or "democratic racism," that is present in Canada?

1) First Nations peoples were stripped of their land, and their traditional subsistence patterns were disrupted, which affected their ability to support themselves and led to poverty, loss of identity, and severe social problems
2) In 1964, the people of Africville Nova Scotia were forcefully relocated and their homes were razed. The 400 residents lived in abysmal conditions -- they were victims of "environmental racism." Basic necessities, such as running water, electricity, sewers, paved streets, and playgrounds for children were denied to Africville citizens.


How were the Chinese Canadians discriminated agains?

In the 19th and 20th centuries, anti-Chinese sentiments ran high in British Columbia, and although over time this attitude has been tempered by growing social maturity among Canadian citizens, intolerance is evident o this day.


What is environmental racism?

Racial discrimination in environmental policy making and the enforcement of regulations that lead to, for example, the targeting of specific communities for waste disposal, power stations, or toxic dumps.


What is institutionalized racism?

Legally sanctioned restrictions based on the ideology that whites are biologically and socially superior to nonwhites.


What is social class?

A category of individuals who enjoy equal or nearly equal prestige according to the evaluation system.


What is the racism against the Chinese legally known as?

institutionalized racism, or sanctioned racism


What is achieved status?

status an individual earns


What is caste?

A special form of social class in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for life.


What is ascribed status?

Status people are born into


What are patterns of association?

Whose we associate with an in what context, reflecting social class


What are symbolic indicators?

In a stratified society, activities and possessions indicative of social class.


What is the fact that castes are strongly endogamous, so that offspring are automatically members of their parents' caste known as?

Ascribed status


What is manifested through patterns of association?

social classes


What is manifested through symbolic indicators?

social classes


What is an example of patterns of association in Western society?

In Western society, informal, friendly relations take place mostly within our own class. Relations with members of other classes tend to be less informal and occur in the context of specific situations.


What are some symbolic indicators of class?

occupation, wealth, dress, form of recreation, residential location, material possessions, and so on.


What does ecological anthropology speculate on?

- emerging genetic differences between classes
- it is a warning that the growing disparities in wealth between the social classes may end up having an evolutionary impact.
- life is apt to be less hard for members of an upper class (lower infant mortality and longer life expectancy for the upper class, greater physical stature and robustness among upper-class people, the result of better diet and protection from serious illnesses in their juvenile years)
- "industrialized cultures, selection process operate more eon socioeconomic factors, and these factors influence the genetic makeup of populations"


What is mobility?

The ability to change one's class position.


What is a closed-class system?

Stratified societies that severely restrict social mobility.


What is an open-class system?

Stratified societies that permit a great deal of social mobility


What is gender stratification?

Unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige, which results in a disadvantaged, subordinate position for women.


What are two factors that are generally focused on with gender inequality?

economics and warfare


How is economic factor into gender inequality?

The control of production strategies and resources may be a primary factor in gender inequality. In cultures where men monopolize production, they tend to be the dominant gender, even if women contribute significantly to the family's economic well-being. The key is control. The gender that controls production and distribution of material goods will dominate a group.


How does warfare factor into gender inequality?

Men who are regularly involved in warfare, as is witnessed among the Yanomami, bring their aggression home, where women consequently tend to defer to them A higher value is placed on sons (future warriors), and women are viewed merely as bearers of sons or as bargaining chip with other groups. Yet in groups where the men spent extended periods of time outside the village at war, such as the 18th-century Iroquois, the women appeared to have experienced a higher status.


Whereas the concept of race is baed on on fallacious reasoning,___is a reliable concept.



True or False: Ethnicity is not fixed; it is constantly changing in reaction to new circumstances.



True or False: No ethnic group is entirely homogenous.



What are the expectations placed on new Canadians?

New Canadians are somewhat expected to conform to or assimilate into the dominant culture, through language, behaviour, clothing,and so on. An individual or group who fails to do so may run the risk of being considered an outsider.


What problems did Ukrainian immigrants have when they came to Canada?

Ukrainians, like other immigrants, were paid lower wages than other workers, and they worked in wretched and often dangerous conditions.
- labelled as "enemy aliens" and were interned during WWI


What played a role in the internment of Ukrainians in WWI, that also set a precedent for the 1941 internment of Japanese Canadians?

A combination of wartime xenophobia, bigotry against a new immigrant population, or the economic benefits of a forced-labour system


What is the problem with multicultural policies in Canada?

As of yet, multicultural policies in Canada have failed to eliminate racial and ethnic inequality, instead creating only superficial harmony.