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Flashcards in MASONRY II Deck (50):
1

What is a vuossoir?

Angled masonry pieces that form an arch

2

Who was F.J. Straub?

Invented the cinderblock in the early 1930s

3

The best ratio for a masonry unit for the most effective bonding

4:2:1

4

"What do you want, Brick?"

"I like an arch"

5

What are the dimensions of a standard building brick?

8" x 3 3/4" x 2 1/4"

6

What is the difference between the soft mud process, the stiff mud process, and the dry – press process?

Always to mold brick…

The soft mud process uses molds into which moist clay is pressed by hand or machine

The stiff mud process forces a mixture through a die, extruding a clay ribbon, cut into bricks by stretched wires

The dry – press process uses a relatively dry mixture, pressed into gang molds by plungers under high-pressure. Produces the most accurately formed brick.

7

If 75% of the bricks total cross-sectional area is solid how is it classified?

Still, a holler brick needs to be at least what percent solid?

Classified as solid… 60%

8

Grades of brick for weathering

Grade SW: used in areas of heavy rain, snow, freezing

Grade MW: used in areas of average rain, moderate freezing

Grade and W: used in areas of minimal rain, no freezing

9

What is face brick?

Exposed to view, carefully manufactured to produce high-quality units in specific sizes, textures, and colors… Available in SW and MW grade

10

Face brick classifications

Grade FBX: high degree of mechanical perfection, narrow color range, minimum size variation

Grade FBS: Greater size variation, wide color range

Grade FBA: non-uniform in size, color, texture

11

Grades of hollow brick

Grade HBX: high degree of mechanical perfection, minimum size variation, narrow color range

Grade HBS: Prater size variation and white coloring

Great HBA: non-uniform in size, color, and texture

12

What is backup brick?

Inferior brick used behind face brick

13

What is paving brick?

Hard, dense brick used in pavements

14

What is firebrick?

Brick made with a great resistance to high temperatures, as in a fireplace

15

What is sewer brick?

Low-absorption brick for use in sewers and storm drains

16

What is adobe brick?

Made from natural clay and straw, placed in molds, dried in the sun… Requires protection from rain and subsurface moisture

17

What is nail-on brick?

Flat brick, used on interiors where solid masonry cannot be structurally supportive

18

The six surfaces of a brick

The face is opposite the side, the end is opposite the cull, the beds are on the top and bottom, the largest

19

If bricks are laid with the end or cull exposed, they are called…

Headers

20

If bricks are laid with the face exposed they are called ...

Stretchers

21

What's the difference between a soldier course and a sailor course?

The soldier course has the faces standing up straight, the sailor course has the beds standing up straight

22

What's the difference between a header course and a rowlock course?

The role a course exposes the end of our culls, like the header, but standing tall

23

Temperature range for laying bricks

40°F to 90°F for best results

24

In general, three bricks +3 joints equals how many inches in height?

8"

25

What is reinforced brickmasonry?

Two wythes of brick separated by a 2 to 4 inch space in which reinforcing bars are placed and later grouted

26

All the ways to bond a brick (tying wythes together into a structural unit)

Common bond: a header course every sixth course

English bond: alternating header and stretcher courses

Flemish bond: alternating headers and structures in each course

Running bond, stacked bond: these to require reinforcing mesh in every sixth course

27

Veneering

Exposed masonry that is attached, but not structurally bonded, to the backing… Held in place by metal wires, clips, or anchors

28

Efflorescence

White powdery deposit on the masonry surface caused by soluble salts in the units or the mortar

29

How often do you need an expansion joint in a masonry building?

1. every 200 feet in length
2. When there are two or more wings in a building

30

Dimensions of a nominal 8 x 8 x 16 concrete block

7 5/8" x 7 5/8" x 15 5/8"

31

Two grades of concrete block for weathering

N: for more severe exposures
S: for block requiring protection from the weather

32

What is structural clay tile?

Hollow, burned clay masonry units with parallel cells

33

What are gypsum blocks used for?

Interior non load bearing partitions, and lightweight fireproofing protection

34

What do you have to watch out for with glass block?

The bond between the glass and the mortar

35

What is the main igneous rock used in construction?

Granite

36

Name three metamorphic rocks

Marble, soapstone, slate

37

Name 4 sedimentary rocks

Limestone, Sandstone, bluestone, brownstone

38

What is a rough stone?

Natural stone used decoratively

39

What is rubble stone?

Irregular stone with at least one good face used for ashlar veneers, copings, sills, curbs

40

What is dimension stone?

Cut stone, used for surface veneers, toilet partitions, flooring, stair treads etc.

41

What is flagstone?

Thin slabs used for paving, treads, countertops, etc.

42

What is monumental stone?

Used for sculpture, monuments, gravestones, etc.

43

What is crushed stone?

Use does aggregate for concrete, asphaltic concrete, terrazzo, built up roof surfacing etc. as well as granular fill

44

What is stone dust?

Used as a filler in asphalt flooring, shingles, paints, etc.

45

What is the difference between coarsed and uncoarsed stone?

Coarsed stone has regular horizontal joints

46

What is the difference between rubble masonry and ashlar masonry?

Rubble has stones in their natural rough state, and Ashlar masonry is shaped into rectangular box

47

Lifetime of mixed mortar

Must be used in three hours

48

Mortar classes for masonry exposed to the weather and or load bearing

Type M or type S

49

Mortar classes where a lesser compressive strength is required

Type N or type O

50

The four masonry joints which shed water

Flush, V, round rodded, weathered