Flashcards in MASONRY II Deck (50):
What is a vuossoir?
Angled masonry pieces that form an arch
Who was F.J. Straub?
Invented the cinderblock in the early 1930s
The best ratio for a masonry unit for the most effective bonding
"What do you want, Brick?"
"I like an arch"
What are the dimensions of a standard building brick?
8" x 3 3/4" x 2 1/4"
What is the difference between the soft mud process, the stiff mud process, and the dry – press process?
Always to mold brick…
The soft mud process uses molds into which moist clay is pressed by hand or machine
The stiff mud process forces a mixture through a die, extruding a clay ribbon, cut into bricks by stretched wires
The dry – press process uses a relatively dry mixture, pressed into gang molds by plungers under high-pressure. Produces the most accurately formed brick.
If 75% of the bricks total cross-sectional area is solid how is it classified?
Still, a holler brick needs to be at least what percent solid?
Classified as solid… 60%
Grades of brick for weathering
Grade SW: used in areas of heavy rain, snow, freezing
Grade MW: used in areas of average rain, moderate freezing
Grade and W: used in areas of minimal rain, no freezing
What is face brick?
Exposed to view, carefully manufactured to produce high-quality units in specific sizes, textures, and colors… Available in SW and MW grade
Face brick classifications
Grade FBX: high degree of mechanical perfection, narrow color range, minimum size variation
Grade FBS: Greater size variation, wide color range
Grade FBA: non-uniform in size, color, texture
Grades of hollow brick
Grade HBX: high degree of mechanical perfection, minimum size variation, narrow color range
Grade HBS: Prater size variation and white coloring
Great HBA: non-uniform in size, color, and texture
What is backup brick?
Inferior brick used behind face brick
What is paving brick?
Hard, dense brick used in pavements
What is firebrick?
Brick made with a great resistance to high temperatures, as in a fireplace
What is sewer brick?
Low-absorption brick for use in sewers and storm drains
What is adobe brick?
Made from natural clay and straw, placed in molds, dried in the sun… Requires protection from rain and subsurface moisture
What is nail-on brick?
Flat brick, used on interiors where solid masonry cannot be structurally supportive
The six surfaces of a brick
The face is opposite the side, the end is opposite the cull, the beds are on the top and bottom, the largest
If bricks are laid with the end or cull exposed, they are called…
If bricks are laid with the face exposed they are called ...
What's the difference between a soldier course and a sailor course?
The soldier course has the faces standing up straight, the sailor course has the beds standing up straight
What's the difference between a header course and a rowlock course?
The role a course exposes the end of our culls, like the header, but standing tall
Temperature range for laying bricks
40°F to 90°F for best results
In general, three bricks +3 joints equals how many inches in height?
What is reinforced brickmasonry?
Two wythes of brick separated by a 2 to 4 inch space in which reinforcing bars are placed and later grouted
All the ways to bond a brick (tying wythes together into a structural unit)
Common bond: a header course every sixth course
English bond: alternating header and stretcher courses
Flemish bond: alternating headers and structures in each course
Running bond, stacked bond: these to require reinforcing mesh in every sixth course
Exposed masonry that is attached, but not structurally bonded, to the backing… Held in place by metal wires, clips, or anchors
White powdery deposit on the masonry surface caused by soluble salts in the units or the mortar
How often do you need an expansion joint in a masonry building?
1. every 200 feet in length
2. When there are two or more wings in a building
Dimensions of a nominal 8 x 8 x 16 concrete block
7 5/8" x 7 5/8" x 15 5/8"
Two grades of concrete block for weathering
N: for more severe exposures
S: for block requiring protection from the weather
What is structural clay tile?
Hollow, burned clay masonry units with parallel cells
What are gypsum blocks used for?
Interior non load bearing partitions, and lightweight fireproofing protection
What do you have to watch out for with glass block?
The bond between the glass and the mortar
What is the main igneous rock used in construction?
Name three metamorphic rocks
Marble, soapstone, slate
Name 4 sedimentary rocks
Limestone, Sandstone, bluestone, brownstone
What is a rough stone?
Natural stone used decoratively
What is rubble stone?
Irregular stone with at least one good face used for ashlar veneers, copings, sills, curbs
What is dimension stone?
Cut stone, used for surface veneers, toilet partitions, flooring, stair treads etc.
What is flagstone?
Thin slabs used for paving, treads, countertops, etc.
What is monumental stone?
Used for sculpture, monuments, gravestones, etc.
What is crushed stone?
Use does aggregate for concrete, asphaltic concrete, terrazzo, built up roof surfacing etc. as well as granular fill
What is stone dust?
Used as a filler in asphalt flooring, shingles, paints, etc.
What is the difference between coarsed and uncoarsed stone?
Coarsed stone has regular horizontal joints
What is the difference between rubble masonry and ashlar masonry?
Rubble has stones in their natural rough state, and Ashlar masonry is shaped into rectangular box
Lifetime of mixed mortar
Must be used in three hours
Mortar classes for masonry exposed to the weather and or load bearing
Type M or type S
Mortar classes where a lesser compressive strength is required
Type N or type O