Flashcards in SUSTAINABILITY Deck (21):
What does the term conservation, came into existence in the late 19 century, refer to?
Management of natural resources
Who wrote silent spring in the 1960s? And what was it about?
Rachel Carson… About the pesticide DDT
What are the five tenets of The Natural Step, written by multiple professional experts in 1996?
1. Substance from the earths crust must not increase in the ecosphere
2. Manufactured substances must not increase in the ecosphere
3. The productivity and diverse city of nature must not be diminished
4. In recognition of the first three, there still must be a fair and efficient use of resources to meet human needs
5. Buildings consume 40% of the worlds energy, a third of the worlds emissions, 40% of acid rain causing carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides
What are the most important considerations in site selection?
1. Adjacency to public transportation
2. Protecting floodplains
3. Erosion, fire, landslides
4. High slope or agricultural use
5. Solar orientation, wind
6. Existing Landscaping site conditions
4 good sustainable things to do with landscaping
1. Install indigenous plants
2. Locate shade trees and plants over dark surfaces to reduce the heat island effect
3. Replace lawns with natural grasses
4. In dry climates, encourage xeriscaping (planting desert plants)
Six additional sustainable site considerations
1. Alternative transportation
2. Reduction of sight disturbance
3. Storm water management
4. Reduction of light pollution
5. Open space preservation
6. Ecologically sensitive landscaping
Three ways to sustainably manage stormwater
1. On-site infiltration of contaminants... Like drainage using swales
2. Reduce in permeable surfaces to prevent runoff
3. And Encourage groundwater recharge
The Ahwahnee Principles are divided into three parts:
Community principles, regional principles, implementation principles
What are the Ahwahnee Community Principles? There are 14.
1. Integrated communities including all necessary elements for daily life of residents
2. Walking distances
3. Walking distance to transit stops
4. Part of a larger transit network
5. Range of economic levels and age groups
6. Businesses provide jobs for community
7. Center focus combining commercial, civic, cultural, recreational
8. Open space with frequent use
9. Public space used in all hours
10. Well defined edge, green belts
11. Integrated streets, pedestrian, bike
12. Preserve natural terrain in green belts and parks
13. Efficient use of water with natural drainage
14. Street orientation and building placement contributes to efficiency
What are the Ahwahnee Regional Principles? There are 4.
1. Integrate within larger transportation network
2. Regions bounded by continuous green belts/wildlife corridors
3. Regional institutions in an urban core
4. Vernacular construction materials and methods
What are the Ahwahnee Implementation Principles? There are 4.
1. General plan should be updated towards Community and Regional principles
2. Local governments should take charge of the planning process
3. Specific plans should be prepared based on Community and Regional principles
4. Open process, participants provided with visual models of all planning principles
Lifecycle costing includes…
First costs, operating, maintenance, replacement, and residual value
LEED covers six categories:
1. Sustainable sites
2. Water efficiency
3. Energy and atmosphere
4. Materials and resources
5. Indoor air quality
6. Innovation and design practice
You score in LEED by adding what and what?
Prerequisites and points
What is DOE-2?
The US Department of Energy's building analysis program
What is the difference between direct to gain systems and indirect gain systems?
Solar design… Direct gain allows solar radiation to flow directly into the space
Indirect to gain has sunlight striking a thermal mass located between the sun and the space
__________ is a process required for LEED certification
What is groundwater aquifer cooling and heating?
Uses differential temperature from an underground well to cool a building during summer and heat in winter
What is geothermal energy?
Tapping underground geothermal springs or lava formations to offset a buildings heating demand
4 advantages and 4 disadvantages of winter turbines
2. Tested, established
3. Relatively high output
4. Systematic started up
1. A relatively high mast
2. Substantial structural support
3. Noise pollution
4. Visually intrusive