Flashcards in Maternal depression and child development Deck (18):
What is the prevalence of postpartum depression?
What are the postpartum blues?
a relatively common emotional disturbance with crying, confusion, mood lability, anxiety and depressed mood. The symptoms appear during the first week postpartum, last for a few hours to a few days and have few negative sequelae
What is postpartum psychosis?
to a severe disorder beginning within four weeks postpartum, with delusions, hallucinations and gross impairment in functioning. Symptoms must last at least 1m and result in impairment of symptoms
What is postpartum depression?
depression begins in or extends into the postpartum period and core features include dysphoric mood, fatigue, anorexia, sleep disturbances, anxiety, excessive guilt and suicidal thoughts. The diagnosis requires that symptoms be present for at least one month and result in some impairment in the woman’s functioning
What are risk factors for postpartum depression?
1. Hx of mood disorders
2. Depression symptoms during the pregnancy
3. FamHx psychiatric d/o
4. Negative life events
5. Poor marital relationships
6. Special needs infant
7. Medically "fragile" infant
8. Lack of social support
9. Drug abuse
10. Personal and family psychopathology
What are consequences of maternal depression prenatally?
Inadequate prenatal care, poor nutrition, higher preterm birth, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion
What are consequences of maternal depression to the infant?
Behavioral: Anger and protective style of coping, passivity, withdrawal, self-regulatory behaviour, and dysregulated attention and arousal
Cognitive: lower cognitive performance
What are consequences of maternal depression to the toddler?
Behavioral: Passive noncompliance, less mature expression of autonomy, internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower interaction
Cognitive: Less creative play and lower cognitive performance
What are consequences of maternal depression to the school aged child?
Behavioral: Impaired adaptive functioning, internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and conduct disorders
Academic: ADHD and lower IQ scores
What are consequences of maternal depression to the adolescent?
Behavioral: Affective disorders (depression), anxiety disorders, phobias, panic disorders, conduct disorders, substance abuse and alcohol dependence
Academic: ADHD, LD
What are contextual risk factors for worsening parental depression and maladaptive parenting?
1. Marital conflict
2. Stressful life events
3. Limited social support
5. Lower social class
6. Lower maternal education
What is the role of fathers
Can buffer effects of maternal depression in the child
What characteristics make the child more resilient
2. Easy going and robust temperament
3. Social and cognitive skills to receive positive attention from adults other than depressed mother
4. Understanding of maternal depression
What pharmacotherapy options are available?
SSRI and TCA are effective and may be used during pregnancy and lactation
What behavioral options are available?
Social support and home visiting interventions are successful in improving mood
Family therapy can be every effective
Psychotherapy can be effective
St. John's Wort can be effective for mild to moderate depression
What are trigger questions to elicit information about postpartum depression?
1. How are you feeling about being a new mother?
2. Are you enjoying your baby?
3. Do you find that your baby is easy or difficult to care for?
4. How are things going in your family?
5. Are you getting enough rest?
6. How is your appetite?
7. During the past month, have you often been bothered by feeling down, depressed or hopeless?
8. During the past month, have you often been bothered by having little interest or pleasure in doing things?
What are conclusions?
1. Postpartum depression occurs in approximately 13% of women, and often goes unrecognized. When it is recognized, there is often a long lapse of time between referral and psychiatric evaluation and treatment because of the lack of resources.
2. The infant of a depressed mother is at risk for developing insecure attachment, negative affect and dysregulated attention and arousal.
3. Toddlers and preschoolers of depressed mothers are at risk for developing poor self-control, internalizing and externalizing problems, and difficulties in cognitive functioning and in social interactions with parents and peers.
4. School-age and adolescent children of depressed parents are at risk for impaired adaptive functioning and psychopathology, including conduct disorders, affective disorders and anxiety disorders. They are also at risk for ADHD and learning disabilities.
5. Contextual risk factors such as poverty, marital conflict and stressful life events may exacerbate parental depression and child behaviour problems. On the other hand, some children develop resiliency through an easy-going temperament, good social cognitive skills and understanding of the parent’s illness.
6. Experience with SSRIs during pregnancy and lactation is limited, but no major malformations or physical and developmental risks to the fetus or the breastfed infant have been described. The risks of the mother’s depression seem to outweigh the low risks of antidepressant medication on the fetus or the breastfed infant.