Flashcards in McCurnin: Chpt. 34 - Veterinary Dentistry Deck (52):
Condition in which the maxilla and the mandible are not equally wide.
Tip of the root of a tooth.
Head shape that is shortened in the rostrocaudal dimension, as seen with breeds such as Pugs, Boston Terriers, and Boxers.
Occurs when one of the jaws is caudal to its normal relationship with the other jaw; mandibular brachygnathism (retrognathism, Class II occlusion) exists when the mandible is shorter than the maxilla.
Plaque that has become calcified and is firmly adhered to the teeth.
Tooth decay caused by bacterial acid production and demineralization of tooth substance.
Hard tissue that covers the root of brachyodont teeth and portions of the crown of some hyspodont teeth.
Gap between teeth, as seen between incisors and the cheek teeth of a rabbit.
Head shape that is longer than average in the rostrocaudal dimension, as is seen in Greyhounds and Collies.
Hard tissue of high mineral content that covers the crown of a tooth.
Branch of dentistry dealing with disease of the pulp.
Extraction of teeth via closed or surgical techniques.
Region of a multi-rooted tooth where the roots diverge from the crown.
Tooth type with a long reserve crown and roots that allow for continued growth and/or continued eruption.
Incorrect alignment of jaws or specific teeth within the jaws.
Refers to a head shape of moderate length in the rostrocaudal dimension, as is seen in Beagles.
Supporting structures of the tooth, including the periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue, alveolar bone, and cementum.
An accumulation of food particles, saliva, minerals, and bacteria that appears as a white-tan, easily removable film on the teeth.
Soft tissue within the center of a tooth, consisting of cells, vessels, and nerves.
Tooth numbering system applicable to multiple veterinary species.
Level of dental care a tech can legally provide varies from state to state. Where can one find out what is legal for one's state?
Go to www.avma.org/Advocacy/StateAndLocal/Pages/sr-dental-procedures.aspx
What does the Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians (AVDT) consist of?
Technicians who have completed a credentials process and passed a specialty examination.
What saves time during charting of oral pathologic conditions?
Knowledge of the Triadan tooth numbering system.
What should every dental procedure begin with?
A comprehensive oral examination to evaluate extraoral structures of the face, head, and neck, and intraoral structures, including soft tissues of the oral cavity, the teeth and their supporting structures.
Name the major salivary glands of the dog and cat!
Paired mandibular, sublingual, zygomatic, and parotid glands.
What is the incisive papilla and where is it located?
It is a raised structure located at the midline behind the maxillary incisors in dogs and cats.
Normal sulcus depth in dogs and cats
Dogs: 0 - 3 mm
Cats: 0 - 1 mm
**Probing depths greater than normal are documented on the chart as pockets!**
What does the periodontium (attachment structures of teeth) include?
It includes the gingival connective tissue, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum.
Does the dental radiographic machine need to be inspected?
It should be inspected regularly for leakage. Many states require such inspections.
How should intraoral film be place into the mouth?
With the white surface of the x-ray film (the surface with the raised dot) always facing toward the beam.
What should you do with a newly developed radiograph after initial viewing?
Place it in fixer for 10 minutes so that archive-quality films can be obtained.
A film that appears too dark is often the result of?
- Greater than necessary exposure time
- Excessive time in the developing solution
- Leakage of light during developing
Things to keep in mind when performing periodontal debridement!
- use a cuffed endotracheal tube
- use gravity (tipping the nose lower than the rest of the head) to prevent aspiration of fluids and debris
How quickly does plaque mineralize?
It begins to mineralize as early as 24 hours after it adheres to the tooth surface. Therefore, daily brushing is necessary to minimize calculus formation.
- the transducer in a magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler may be a metal stack or a ferrite rod
- the transducer in a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler may be a quarts crystal or a ceramic disc
NEVER do this with the ultrasonic scaler!
Never direct it at a 90-degree angle toward the tooth surface because the tip will cause damage to the enamel.
What are scalers and curettes designed to be used for?
Scalers are designed to be used on the tooth crown.
Curettes are designed to be used subgingivally.
When an area-specific curette is used, the proper cutting edge is the lower edge, as determined by holding the terminal shank perpendicular to the floor. The terminal shank of an area-specific curette is kept parallel to the long axis of the tooth during a vertical scaling stroke.
The handle of the universal scaler is kept parallel to the long axis of the tooth during a vertical scaling stroke.
When hand instruments are sharpened, the angle between the stone and the face should be approx. 110 degrees.
When sharpening curettes, remember to continue sharpening around the toe while maintaining this angle.
Why should attempts not be made to save teeth with advanced periodontal surgery?
Unless the client is able to perform daily brushing.
Bass technique of tooth brushing
Place bristles of brush at a 45-degree angel against the tooth along the gingival margin to enable some bristles to slide into the sulcus.
Stillman technique of tooth brushing
This is used in areas of periodontal surgery where bristles apical to the gingival margin are moved with a gentle sweeping motion in the coronal direction against the gingiva without placement of bristles into the healing sulcus.
H-files vs. K-files
H-files are used in a push-pull motion and are more susceptible to file breakage than K-files.
K-files are inserted to the apical extent of the canal, turned one-quarter turn, and removed, allowing for shaping of the apical portion of the canal.
Sodium hypochlorite facts
- irritable to soft tissue
- avoid contact with oral soft tissue
- avoid forceful irrigation of the canal to prevent periapical migration of the irrigant
Client information re. tooth extractions, etc.
Never extract a tooth without the direct permission of the client.
Always obtain a contact phone number to discuss any unexpected findings.
Regional nerve block facts
- lower inhalant requirements
- provide postoperative pain relief
Cause of feline tooth resorption
The cause is still unknown, but recent research suggests that vitamin D levels in commercial cat food may play a role.
What to do when a patient has a tooth with pulp exposure!
- requires endodontic treatment or extraction
- "wait-and-see" approach is not appropriate because dogs and cats disguise their level of discomfort
What accounts for approx. 70% of oral tumors in cats?
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
Good treatment option for feline stomatitis.
Full-mouth extractions and nearly full-mouth extractions have been shown to provide resolution of oral discomfort in approx. 80% of cases.
What is often used as the definitive treatment of mandibular fractures in puppies?
Tape muzzles as rigid fixation may arrest growth of the mandible.