Pulp cavities help in determining age
Labiolingual sections show various stages of development.
1. Crown complete; root partially completed with large pulp cavity, wide open at apical end.
2. Tooth almost complete, except for lack of constriction of apical foramen.
3. Canine of young individual with large pulp cavity and completed root tip.
4. Typical canine of adult, demonstrating constriction of the foramen.
5. Canine of an elderly individual with a constricted pulp chamber and canal; this specimen has lost its original crown form because of wear during function.
Elongation of dental x-ray
Raise the beam
"Sun at noon"
Foreshortening of the x-ray
Lower the beam and/or angle more
"Sun in the afternoon/evening"
Foreshortening vs. Elongation
Scope of practice for vet techs with respect to dental procedures or dental surgeries, who do you ctc to find out?
How do I obtain my VTS in dentistry?
NAVTA created CVTS (Committee for Veterinary Technician Specialties) which governs Veterinary Technician specialists.
AVDT = Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians
By December 15, all AVDT training program applicants and their mentors must together submit several required documents to the Credentials Chair of the Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians along with the required fee:
Letter of Intent (Form 1)
The applicant’s curriculum vitae.
Complete employment history (Form 2)
Contract with veterinary dental mentor (Form 3)
All applicants and mentors are encouraged to review the current Credentials packet at the training program inception to become familiar with the scope of the final credentialing process.
After all credential guidelines are fulfilled, you may apply to take the exam, which is held once a year.
Teeth - Triadan system
Chronic Ulcerative Paradental Stomatitis
Areas affected are mucosa adjacent to diseased teeth
Caused by bacteria in the plaque
Assessing gingival bleeding
Explores topography of tooth surface
- Surface irregularities
- Completeness of debridement
- Smooth transitions of fillings
Sharp tip and 3 sharp edges
Used for removal of supragingival calculus
Blade is straight or curved
Sickle scaler - most common
Rounded tip and thin curved sides; rounded back
Removes calculus and debris from below the gumline (subgingival)
Gracey (1 cutting edge) and Universal (2 cutting edges) - most common
Calculus removal forceps
Quick removal of large pieces of calculus
- longer one over crown
- shorter one under calculus
Elevates mucoperiosteum to facilitate closing of the extraction site and/or allow removal of some alveolar bone in a surgical extraction
Used to stretch out and tear the periodontal ligament displacing the tooth root from the socket
Cuts periodontal ligament around tooth
Grips and removes tooth after it has been loosened
Root tip pick
Stretches and breaks periodontal ligament, in order to retrieve a fractured root tip
Root tip forceps
Reaches deep into tooth socket to grasp and remove loosened root pieces
Alveolar bone curette
Used to debride alveolus after extraction
Used for sectioning teeth and removing alveolar bone for extractions
Used to section teeth and remove alveolar bone
Fit on highspeed handpiece
No gingival inflammation or periodontitis clinically evident
Without attachment loss
Height and architecture of alveolar margin are normal
Less than 25% attachment loss or at most stage 1 furcation in multi-rooted teeth
25-50% attachment loss
Stage 2 furcation involvement in multi-rooted teeth
More than 50% attachment loss
Stage 3 furcation involvement of multi-rooted teeth
How to know this is a radiograph of the maxilla
Nasal passages and sinuses visible
Radio-dense "white line" across root of canine tooth (palatine process of maxilla)
Carnassial has three roots, with single root caudally
Both molars have three roots
How to know this is a radiograph of the mandible
No sinuses visible
Mandibular cortex visible on ventral mandible
Mandibular canal visible
Mental foramina present
Molars all have two roots
Structures seen on oral rads
Periodontal ligament space
Name the nerve blocks
1. Inferior alveolar nerve block
(or mandibular nerve block)
2. Maxillary nerve block
3. Infraorbital nerve block
4. Middle mental nerve block
Inferior alveolar nerve block
also known as mandibular nerve block
- soft tissue/bone
Maxillary nerve block
Entire maxillary quadrant on buccal and palatal sides
Infraorbital nerve block
Tip of needle on ipsilateral maxilla
Middle mental nerve block
Ipsilateral rostral lower lip from labial frenulum
Facial morphology in which upper jaw is wider than lower jaw
What kind of joint is the mandibular symphysis?
A cartilaginous joint
Modified Stillman technique