Week 6 Notes Flashcards Preview

Dentistry > Week 6 Notes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 6 Notes Deck (42):
1

Ankylosed roots

Calcified roots - lose their normal attachment to bone (periodontal ligament) and become fused directly to it

2

What is periodontal Sx used for?

- Pocket elimination

- Surgically extract teeth

- Removal of retained roots

- Removal of ankylosed roots

3

How is periodontal Sx performed?

- Flaps are created

- Periosteal elevator used to free up root

- Bone may be reshaped, if needed (DVM will use drill and burs on highspeed handpiece)

- Gingiva is sutured back in its position using absorbable suture (4-0 - 5-0) using a simple interrupted pattern

4

What is the interdental space called?

Diastema

5

Periodontal Sx

Creating a surgical flap

A image thumb
6

Flap procedure

Tools needed:

Scalpel and blade

Periosteal elevator

Highspeed burr

Periodontal elevator

Highspeed drill

4-0 to 5-0 absorbable suture (e.g. catgut)

A image thumb
7

Define oronasal fistula

An oronasal fistula is a communication between the oral cavity and the anterior respiratory tract. Oronasal fistulas occur most commonly in the area of the upper canines, and with less frequency in the incisor region.

8

What cells lay down more bone?

Osteoblasts

9

Release Flap

Used for pockets >4mm

Release incisions made on one or both sides of lesion

Incision reaches just below gingival margin and periosteum is raised

Remove diseased tissue

Clean root surfaces

Suture horizontal edges of flap interdentally

Also close vertical incisions

10

What bacteria are present in the oral cavity?

gram+ and gram- bacteria

11

Periodontal therapies

Regenerative Therapy

Take pre- and post-operative radiographs

Create a full thickness flap

Remove diseased marginal gingiva, debris and granulation tissue

Place osseopromotive (conductive, inductive) product

Close flap w/o tension

Check radiographs 3-4 mos later

12

Name an osteoconductive material

Consil

Bioglass

13

Dry Socket

Another name: Alveolar osteitis

- common complication after extraction

- clot formed after extraction dissolves or dislodges, exposing nerves and bone

- very painful

- flush area

- could perform flap procedure to cover dry socket

- given ABs

14

Define endodontic

Inside tooth

15

Endodontic procedures

Procedures to avoid extractions

- remove live or dead pulp

- prevent or treat infection

e.g.:

- root canals

- vital pulpotomy

16

Root canals

Routinely performed to save teeth in dogs and cats (e.g. show dogs, etc.)

Teeth serve an important function and it is often beneficial to save them

Tooth will be dead after procedure

Usually done for animals over 18 mos of age

A image thumb
17

Apicoectomy

Common post-root canal sequela (from introduction of bacteria into apex of root)

Root canal has failed and pulpal infection is found

Root tip is removed by cutting into gum

Infection is removed

Tooth gets sealed and gum is re-sutured

A image thumb
18

Vital pulpotomy

Also called partial coronal pulpectomy

Salvage procedure

Treatment of recently exposed dental pulp tissue (may occur unexpectandly from trauma resulting in tooth Fx; during treatment; during crown reduction; to treat traumatic malocclusions)

Material (gutta percha) inserted into pulp cavity, then a crown is placed over it

High rate of failure leading to root canal

A image thumb
19

Define "gutta percha"

Material inserted into pulp cavity during vital pulpotomy

Is radiopaque

Like latex material

A image thumb
20

Root canal therapy vs. Vital pulpotomy

Radiographs should be done for both before and after

Root canal is a complete pulpectomy, while a vital pulpotomy is a partial coronal pulpectomy

Root canals are performed on vital or dying/non-vital teeth, while vital pulpotomy is only used for vital/live teeth

Vital pulpotomy is not appropriate for discolored teeth with pulpitis

Root canals cannot be done on young teeth (no root apex has formed yet) and tooth would seize to develop w/root canal (root canal is ok for animals >18 mos of age)

21

Pictures of root canal therapy

A image thumb
22

Restorative dentistry

Protects tooth after endodontic Tx

Restores form and function of damaged teeth

4 types:

Amalgam

Composites

Class II glass ionomers

Full coverage metal or porcelain crowns

23

Amalgam restoration

Not used as much anymore (mercury in it)

Strong

Not visually appealing

Used on occlusal surfaces

Disadvantages:

- requires undercut preparation

- corrosive

- does not create as good of a seal as composite fillings do

24

Composite restoration

White color

Bonded to tooth surface, less likely to leak than amalgam

Not as tough as amalgam, can more easily be broken down (may nn replacement)

25

Crown restorations

An option in broken or diseased teeth

Rarely medically necessary, but can improve function and aesthetics of teeth

Predominantly fabricated to increase strength and size of a fractured tooth

May nn frequent replacement

A image thumb
26

Orthodontics

Correction of malocclusions

(mainly done in show animals)

Expanders

Invisaligners

Braces

Prosthetics

 

A image thumb
27

Dental Models

Impressions

Made for orthodontic evaluation and treatment

A image thumb
28

Why give local blocks?

Reduces amount of inhaled anesthesia

Can lessen amount of bleeding

Helps w/PT recovery

Can lessen amount of postoperative medication

29

MOA of local blocks

Blocks Na+ and K+ channels at synapse

30

How are local blocks done?

Local anesthetics are introduced at nerve foramen and create anesthesia of regional and soft tissues

Performed on infraorbital, mental, and mandibular nerves

Use:

Lidocaine - fast, lasts 2 hours

Marcaine - slower, lasts 6-10 hours

2mg/kg within 24 hours

31

Mandibular block

A image thumb
32

Mental block

A image thumb
33

Infraorbital block

A image thumb
34

Caudal Maxillary block

A image thumb
35

Bonded sealants

No pulp exposure, only dentin

Smooth Fx/chip

Apply bonded sealant

Heat fix it

Smooth surface

A image thumb
36

Doxirobe

Gel & antibiotic (=doxycycline against gram+ and gram- bacteria)

A perioceutic (time releases w/in oral cavity)

Flowable solution at first, then turns into solid

Inject into lesion as we measure w/probe (applied subgingivally)

Doxycycline is slowly released from polymer providing local antimicrobial effect

A image thumb
37

Doxirobe application

A image thumb
38

Consil

Osteoconductive ("bone packing")

Synthetic bone graft material

Helps bone growth occurs uniformly throughout the defect

Undergoes a time dependent reaction

A image thumb
39

Tooth mobility

Stage 0

"M0"

Physiologic mobility up to 0.2 mm

40

Tooth mobility

Stage 1

"M1"

Mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.2 mm and up to 0.5mm

41

Tooth mobility

Stage 2

"M2"

Mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance of more than 0.5 mm and up to 1.0mm

42

Tooth mobility

Stage 3

"M3"

Mobility is increased in any direction other than axial over a distance exceeding 1.0 mm or any axial movement