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Flashcards in Week 2 Notes Deck (32):

Dental units

Compressor (CAVT uses this one)

Gas driven

Motor driven (lacks water supply, heats up easily)


How often do air storage tanks need to be drained?

EVERY day (condensation could mix with oil and create rust).


Dental unit - special features

Foot pedal controls

Fiber optic light source

Change head pieces



Dental unit handpieces

Used for cutting teeth/bone, polishing

Variable speeds

Maintenance - oil, clean



Care/use of dental unit handpieces

Never run high speed w/o bur or blank

Low speed - high torque, more heat

High speed - may stall, need water cooled


Contra-angle dental unit handpiece attachment

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Prophy-angle dental unit handpiece attachment

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Bit or drill


Sonic Scaler

Uses air to cause tip to vibrate

Generates less heat

Less powerful

More expensive (hand pieces cost more to replace)

Tip maintenance (metal/stainless steel)

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Ultrasonic Scaler


Requires tuning

More prone to damage

Tip maintenance (measure tips frequently)

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Dental tables

Fixed or mobile

Dry or wet

Ability to slope (regurgitation!!!)

Clean and disinfection

Adjustable chairs

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Personal Protective Equipment


Eye protection

Face mask


Hearing protection

Dosimetry badges

Ergonomics - repetitive motion

Proper instrumentation

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Dental Hazards

Physical (High speed drills, ...)

Chemical (ChlorHex, ...)

Biological (saliva, tissue, ...)


Dental Instrumentation

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Dental Explorers

Detects abnormalities in the enamel

Detects calculus below the gumline

Probes exposed nerves of fractured teeth and resorptive lesions

Delicate and flexible steel using the handlers sense of touch and feel

Most common explorer is called the Shepherd's Hook

Also a finer tip version

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Periodontal Probe

Used to measure the depth of the gingival sulcus, which is important in determining periodontal disease

Minimal sulcular depths are normal - < 3 mm in dogs and 0.5 - 1 mm in cats (anything deeper is called a pocket)

Intervals marked using notches or color changes

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Sharp tip and 3 sharp edges

Used for removal of supragingival calculus

Blade is straight or curved

Sickle scaler most common

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Rounded tip and thin curved sides; rounded back

Removes calculus and debris from below the gumline

Most common are the Gracey - 1 cutting edge and the Universal - 2 cutting edges

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Above gingiva


Calculus Removal Forceps

Allow for quick removal of large pieces of calculus

2 tips (longer tip is placed over crown, shorter tip is placed under calculus)

Calculus is broken into pieces when both tips of the instrument come together

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Periosteal Elevator

Used to elevate the mucoperiosteum in order to facilitate closing the extraction site and/or allow the removal of some of the alveolar bone in a surgical extraction

Blade comes in different shapes and sizes for use in different size patients and types of procedures


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Periosteal Elevator in use

Blade has a flat side and a convex side.

Flat side goes against the tooth surface while the convex side lies against the soft tissue to reduce tearing and trauma.

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Dental Elevator

Used to stretch cut and tear the periodontal ligament which displaces the tooth root from the socket.

The tips have a rounded scoop appearance with a sharp edge which may or may not be serrated.

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Dental Elevator in use

Concave side is placed along the tooth surface while the convex side lies between the tooth and the alveolar bone.

The edges come in different sizes and shapes to facilitate different tooth sizes and extraction conditions.

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Dental Luxators

Thinner tip design

Allows easier access to the periodontal ligament

Used to cut the periodontal ligament around the tooth

There is an increased chance of bending or breaking the tip

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Extraction Forceps

Used for gripping and removing the tooth after it has been loosened

The most common type is the small breed forceps which are nicely adapted to the conical shape of the animal tooth

The spring retraction allows less force to be placed on small teeth reducing the chance of crown fracture

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Root Tip Pick

Used to stretch and break the periodontal ligament, in order to retrieve a fractured root tip.

Can be straight, right angled or left angled.

Tips are narrow with two sharp sides and a pointed sharp tip.

Gentle pressure must be used to avoid breaking the tip.

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Root Tip Forceps

These instruments have fine pointed serrated tips and a 45-degree working angle.

Reaches deep into the tooth socket to grasp and remove loosened root pieces.

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Alveolar Bone Curette

Used to debride the alveolus after extraction.

It has a scoop at the end.

Can be straight or angled with a long shank to reach deep into the alveolus.

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Highspeed Handpiece

Used for sectioning teeth and removing alveolar bone for extractions

It has a water source using compressed air for cooling the bur

Highspeed handpieces run at 300,000 - 400,000 rpm

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Dental Burs

These fit on the highspeed handpiece

Used to section the teeth and remove alveolar bone

Crosscut fissure bur

Round burs

Round bur sizes range from 1/4 to 6

Size you use depends on the size of the tooth you are working on

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Dental Charting

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