Compressor (CAVT uses this one)
Motor driven (lacks water supply, heats up easily)
How often do air storage tanks need to be drained?
EVERY day (condensation could mix with oil and create rust).
Dental unit - special features
Foot pedal controls
Fiber optic light source
Change head pieces
Dental unit handpieces
Used for cutting teeth/bone, polishing
Maintenance - oil, clean
Care/use of dental unit handpieces
Never run high speed w/o bur or blank
Low speed - high torque, more heat
High speed - may stall, need water cooled
Contra-angle dental unit handpiece attachment
Prophy-angle dental unit handpiece attachment
Bit or drill
Uses air to cause tip to vibrate
Generates less heat
More expensive (hand pieces cost more to replace)
Tip maintenance (metal/stainless steel)
More prone to damage
Tip maintenance (measure tips frequently)
Fixed or mobile
Dry or wet
Ability to slope (regurgitation!!!)
Clean and disinfection
Personal Protective Equipment
Ergonomics - repetitive motion
Physical (High speed drills, ...)
Chemical (ChlorHex, ...)
Biological (saliva, tissue, ...)
Detects abnormalities in the enamel
Detects calculus below the gumline
Probes exposed nerves of fractured teeth and resorptive lesions
Delicate and flexible steel using the handlers sense of touch and feel
Most common explorer is called the Shepherd's Hook
Also a finer tip version
Used to measure the depth of the gingival sulcus, which is important in determining periodontal disease
Minimal sulcular depths are normal - < 3 mm in dogs and 0.5 - 1 mm in cats (anything deeper is called a pocket)
Intervals marked using notches or color changes
Sharp tip and 3 sharp edges
Used for removal of supragingival calculus
Blade is straight or curved
Sickle scaler most common
Rounded tip and thin curved sides; rounded back
Removes calculus and debris from below the gumline
Most common are the Gracey - 1 cutting edge and the Universal - 2 cutting edges
Calculus Removal Forceps
Allow for quick removal of large pieces of calculus
2 tips (longer tip is placed over crown, shorter tip is placed under calculus)
Calculus is broken into pieces when both tips of the instrument come together
Used to elevate the mucoperiosteum in order to facilitate closing the extraction site and/or allow the removal of some of the alveolar bone in a surgical extraction
Blade comes in different shapes and sizes for use in different size patients and types of procedures
Periosteal Elevator in use
Blade has a flat side and a convex side.
Flat side goes against the tooth surface while the convex side lies against the soft tissue to reduce tearing and trauma.
Used to stretch cut and tear the periodontal ligament which displaces the tooth root from the socket.
The tips have a rounded scoop appearance with a sharp edge which may or may not be serrated.
Dental Elevator in use
Concave side is placed along the tooth surface while the convex side lies between the tooth and the alveolar bone.
The edges come in different sizes and shapes to facilitate different tooth sizes and extraction conditions.
Thinner tip design
Allows easier access to the periodontal ligament
Used to cut the periodontal ligament around the tooth
There is an increased chance of bending or breaking the tip
Used for gripping and removing the tooth after it has been loosened
The most common type is the small breed forceps which are nicely adapted to the conical shape of the animal tooth
The spring retraction allows less force to be placed on small teeth reducing the chance of crown fracture
Root Tip Pick
Used to stretch and break the periodontal ligament, in order to retrieve a fractured root tip.
Can be straight, right angled or left angled.
Tips are narrow with two sharp sides and a pointed sharp tip.
Gentle pressure must be used to avoid breaking the tip.
Root Tip Forceps
These instruments have fine pointed serrated tips and a 45-degree working angle.
Reaches deep into the tooth socket to grasp and remove loosened root pieces.
Alveolar Bone Curette
Used to debride the alveolus after extraction.
It has a scoop at the end.
Can be straight or angled with a long shank to reach deep into the alveolus.
Used for sectioning teeth and removing alveolar bone for extractions
It has a water source using compressed air for cooling the bur
Highspeed handpieces run at 300,000 - 400,000 rpm
These fit on the highspeed handpiece
Used to section the teeth and remove alveolar bone
Crosscut fissure bur
Round bur sizes range from 1/4 to 6
Size you use depends on the size of the tooth you are working on