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Flashcards in Week 1 Notes Deck (66):
1

Canine skull showing permanent dentition

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Feline skull showing permanent dentition

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When beginning a dental exam, take into consideration ...

Teeth

Jaw

Type of animal (brachycephalic, dolichocephalic,...)

Diet

Age

4

What animal has the perfect dentition?

Pig (Ttl of 44 teeth)

5

Incisive Papilla

Rugae

Raphe

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Cat teeth have fewer ..., but more ...

Cat teeth have fewer OCCLUSIONAL surfaces, but more SECTORAL surfaces (for cutting and shearing meat as cats are obligate carnivores. They need taurine, only found in animal tissue!!!).

7

Canine skull bones (lateral view)

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Canine skull bones (dorsal view)

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Canine skull bones (palatine/ventral view)

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10

Minimal distance between infraorbital foramen and eye socket as seen in a cat skull

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11

Tooth development

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12

Tooth anatomy

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13

Medial

Toward the midline of the face

14

Distal

Away from the midline of the face

15

Vestibular

Toward the vestibule or lips

(interchangeable with labial or buccal)

16

Labial

Toward the lips, used for the incisors and canines

17

Buccal

Toward the cheeks, used for premolars and molars

18

Facial

Surfaces of rostral teeth visible from the front

19

Lingual

Toward the tongue, used in the mandible

20

Palatal

Toward the palate, used in the maxilla

21

Coronal

Toward the crown of the tooth

22

Apical

Toward the root of the tooth

23

Contact, proximal, or occlusal

Toward adjoining teeth in same jaw

24

Interproximal

Between two teeth

25

Cusp

Point of the tooth

26

Cervical or neck

Area of tooth where crown and root meet

27

Canine Triadan Tooth Numbering system

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Feline Triadan Tooth Numbering system

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29

Furcation

Also known as inter-radicular space

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30

Dental anatomy quadrants

1 & 4 are on the RIGHT!

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31

Tooth abbreviations

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32

General anatomy of a tooth

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33

Crown and root are encased in what?

Crown in enamel

Root in cementum

34

Enamel

Hardest substance in body

Densely packed with hydroxypapatite (mineral) crystal

Heavily mineralized with calcium salts

Deposited by cells called ameloblast

35

Ameloblast

Cells that deposit enamel

36

Cementum

Calcified connective tissue

37

Dentin

Bonelike material

Under enamel

Makes up most of tooth

38

Dental history

Clinical symptoms

At home dental care

Diet

Treats

Toys

39

Extraoral examination

Head, face, eyes, neck

Symmetrical comparison

Discharge, odor, or pain from ears or eyes

Bilateral retropulsion of eyes

Salivary glands and lymph nodes

Occlusion, persistent deciduous teeth

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40

Tartar is made up of?

Mineral salts

Protein

Bacteria

41

CUPS

Chronic Ulcerative Paradental Stomatitis

- painful

Description:  Mucosal ulcerations

Site:  Areas of mucosa adjacent to diseased teeth

Cause:  Bacteria in the plaque

42

Name common sites for tumor/growths

Commissure of vestibule & tonsils

43

Crypts

Pockets/pouches tonsils reside in

44

Intraoral examination

Skin/mucosa of lips

Caudal cheek lining near carnassial, molars

Duct openings on alveolar mucosa

Hard and soft palates

Pharynx

Dorsal, ventral, lateral surfaces, floor of mouth, base of tongue

Tonsils

45

Chewing lesions

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46

Vestibular commissure stomatitis

May be treated by full dental extractions

Autoimmune

Steroids, not ABs

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47

Periodontal Probes

Measuring (William's markings)

Assessing mobility

Assessing gingival bleeding

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48

Dental Explorer

Explores topography of tooth surface

Tactile/vibrations

Detects: Surface irregularities, completeness of debridement, smooth transitions of fillings

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49

Modified Pen Grasp

Tactile Sensitivity

Precise control

3 fingertips in tripod position

Index and thumb rest where handle and shank meet

Middle finger pad rests on shank

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50

Assessing tooth circumference

Insert into sulcus

Probe parallel as possible to long axis of root

Probe tip in contact with tooth

Resistance: mark probe level adjacent to gingival margin

"Walk" probe around tooth to assess circumference (hop & skip, do not drag!)

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Attrition

Abnormal tooth wear

52

Recording initial findings

Tissue variations

Presence/absence of teeth

Periodontal probe (attachment, pocket depth, bone loss, oral lesion size)

Dental explorer (caries, feline resorption, calculus, pulp exposure, tactile sensitivity)

Tooth mobility, gingiva characteristics, abrasion/attrition of teeth

53

Dental radiology can reveal

Root resorption

Caries

Periapical radiolucency

Periodontal bone loss

Retained root tips

Unerupted teeth

Osteomyelitis

Neoplasia

Tooth/jaw fractures, foreign bodies

Disease of temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

54

Where are most dental diseases/conditions found?

In the periodontum

55

Dental X-ray machine

Can be fixed (mounted to wall) or portable

Control panel, long arm, tube head

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56

Radiographic film

Plastic base, emulsion of silver halide crystals

Lead foil backing

Direct exposure film

White surface (convex dot) faces beam

Colored surface (concave dot) away from beam

Size (0-4)

Speed (A-F)

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Film processing

Chemicals convert silver halide to metallic silver

Dark room

Chairside

Automatic processor (faster)

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58

Digital radiography

Computed digital radiography (CDR)

Becoming more common

Reduces radiation exposure

Direct method

Often compatible with modern dental x-ray machines

Expensive

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Exposure and processing errors

Unnecessary radiation exposure

Longer anesthetic time due to:

- cone cutting

- elongation and foreshortening

- too dark, too light

- dotted streaks

- scratches

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Radiographic technique

Paralleling technique (parallel to long axis of tooth)

Bisecting angle technique (minimizes distortion)

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Radiopaque

Block or absorb radiation

Appears white

Cementum, dentin, bone

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Radiolucent

X-rays pass through

Appears black

Soft tissue

Periodontal ligament space

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63

Permanent dental formula (canine)

Maxilla: (I3, C1, PM4, M2) x2

Mandible: (I3, C1, PM4, M3) x2

Total number of permanent teeth: 42

64

Permanent dental formula (feline)

Maxilla: (I3, C1, PM3, M1) x2

Mandible: (I3, C1, PM2, M1) x2

Total number of permanent teeth: 30

65

Primary bones of cranium

Frontal

Parietal

Interparietal

Temporal

Ethmoid

Occipital

Sphenoid

66

Facial Bones

Lacrimal

Temporal process (incl. Zygomatic arch)

Nasal

Maxilla

Incisive

Pterygoid

Ventral nasal conchal

Mandible