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Flashcards in Mediaeval Deck (32):

a) Secular Clergy

i) Living with their fellow people


b) Regular Clergy

i) Special living conditions


(a) 3 big types of Monasteries

(i) Benedictines
1. Grew immensely then declined
2. Had equal parts of prayer, study and working
(ii) Cluniac (910 AD)
1. Tweaked Benedictine
a. More structured/ordered
i. Controlled its spread
b. Not subject to the local Bishop
i. Reported only to the pope
(iii) Cistercians (1100 AD)
1. Reverted to a simpler monotheism
a. Back to basics


(b) Monasticism made work

(i) Therefore, it was a positive thing to do


d) Trial by Ordeal

i) Used in law cases
(1) Hot iron carrying
(2) Witch floating


e) Trial by Battle

i) For the “elite” of society
ii) Church was also against this


f) Canon Law

i) Law of the Church
(1) For members of the church (priests, nuns)
(2) Had their own court system
(3) Also for topics that only suited the church
(a) E.g. Wills


g) Church was good at raising money

i) Efficient
ii) Used their land to do it


h) Excommunication

i) Church used this for punishment
ii) Threw out members who had poor conduct


i) Interdict

i) A region was put on strike by the Church
(1) They would refuse to do any services


j) The success of the Church led to

to religious and constitutional conflict
i) Also, needed a lot of money to run
(1) First Fruits
(a) New Bishops had to pay a fee equal to their yearly income upon entering


k) Jubilee

(1300 AD)
i) Benefits from offerings were increased
(1) Spiritually
ii) Every 25 years this occurred
iii) Was needed for funding
iv) Church ethics were questioned


l) Canossa

i) Emperor in the 1040’s
(1) Disproved of the Pope and replaced him
(a) With his cousin, Leo IX
(i) Began to reform the Papacy
1. Overhauled Rome’s Admin
a. The Curia (the court)
b. Cardinals
i. Only gave it to the inner advisors of the Curia
2. Identified 2 “abuses” in the Church
a. Clerical Marriage
i. He encouraged priests to not marry
b. Simony
i. The buying and selling of church property
3. Traveled and imposed the idea of Rome
a. During the translation of a saint, Leo decided to take the bones and called out several bishops


m) Nicholas II

A pope in 1060’s)
i) Took the cardinals and gave them a college
(1) Made it so for a pope to be elected, it would be via a vote of the college of cardinals
ii) Identified a new abuse
(1) Lay Investiture
(a) The “clothing” of a new priest/bishop by one not of the church
iii) Recognized the collision course with the Empire
(1) Did a deal with the Normans
(a) The Papacy will recognize them as the rulers of Cicely and South Italy if they agree to be mercenaries for them


n) Henry IV

(Ruler of Rome)
i) Was a child
ii) Came of age in the 1070’s
(1) Had to regain lost power


o) Hildebrand

(pope in the 1070’s)
i) Had been an ambassador in Germany
ii) When he began being a Pope, he called himself Gregory VII
iii) Dictatus Papae
(1) Consisted of 30ish “one liners” in the book
(a) One said “Pope’s may depose emperors”


p) Clash between Henry and Hildebrand

i) Gregory excommunicated him
(1) Henry’s rebels took advantage of this
ii) They collided at Knosa
(1) Henry repented for his sins
(a) Gregory re-accepted him
iii) Few years later Henry was excommunicated again
(1) Was not as bad as before
(2) Henry took a German army down to Rome
(a) Normans protected the Pope though


q) 1122 AD

i) Concordat of Worms
(1) When a church possession became vacant, each side offered a list of candidates
(a) Decided together
(i) The man who is chosen is invested by the emperor with marks of imperial authority
(ii) Church then invests the man
(b) By doing this both sides were happy


Roman Dynasty died out

2 families had claim
i) The Hohenstaufen (Ghibelline) and the Welf (Guelf)
(1) Innocent II played both sides for self-gain


s) Overall the Hohenstaufen

had the most emperors
i) One emperor was Fredrick Barbarossa (Red Beard)
(1) At the end of his life he married his son to the heiress of Cecily
(a) Thus, making their child the ruler of Rome and King of the Normans
(i) Fredrick II Stupor Mundi (Wonder of World)
1. Had friends of several religions
a. This antagonized the church
2. In 1245 the pope disposed Fredrick
u) The Church eradicated the Hohenstaufen


t) Conradino

(Fredrick’s Grandson)
i) Was captured by the church and publicly beheaded



v) 1254-1273 there was no emperor


a) Particularism

i) Used to describe what happened to Germany
(1) Germans would identify with the region of Germany they were from


b) France was split

little “mini countries” inside. Mainly split between North and South. Two dialects
i) Lauge D’Oc -More Roman
(1) The south part of France was more Roman overall
ii) Lauge D’oeil-More French
(1) The north part of France was overall less Roman


c) Capetians

i) Named after Hugh Capet (987)
ii) He did many things for the Kingdom of France
(1) Very prolific
(a) Capetian sons and fathers got along well
(2) Their territory was known as Ile de France
(a) From present day Paris, down 200 km to Lauge River
(i) Very good positioning for trading
1. Allowed them to build power


iii) Philip Augustus

Phillip the Increaser)
(1) Became king in 1180 AD
(2) Took advantage of the feudal world to make his move
(3) Angevin Family
(a) Controlled west France
(b) Were also kings of England
(c) John
(i) Had run off with the fiancé of a French nobleman
1. The nobleman filled a complaint against him to Phillip
a. Phillip Demanded John to come to court, but John refused
i. Philip then said that John’s French land was then escheat and it all went back to Philip, this being all West France


d) New Heresy

i) Albigensian
(1) The human body was an abomination
(a) This caused some people to not procreate and commit suicide
(2) Also, called the Cathars
(3) Were seen as a huge danger
ii) Pope Innocent III declared a crusade against them
(1) Lead response came from the Capetians
(a) Cathars were defeated and their territory was left open to claim
(i) The Capetians claimed it, thus increasing their territory further


Bureaucratical System

e) By increasing territory, Capetian King’s organized the territory into a Bureaucratical System
i) Instead of a feudal
ii) Used salaried officials
iii) Money rose in importance


f) Curia Regis

i) Capetian kings used to act through his Curia Regis
(1) With the leading church men and leading vassals
ii) Changed in the 13th century AD
(1) The King decided to modify it
(a) Added representatives of towns and cities
(i) Known as the 3rd estate
1. After Church and Nobility
2. Also, called the Bourgeois
(b) Was known as the Estates General (1300 AD)
(c) Went from a Feudal Monarchy to a National Monarchy


g) Phillip IV

during the time of the Estates General)
i) Was desperate for money due to the wars
(1) Starting taxing the church
(a) Boniface VIII (the Pope) complained
(i) Did not think the church should have to be involved in war funding
(b) Debate over who controls church funds
(i) Power struggle between Pope and King
1. Phillip arrested the Pope
a. Showed the power of a National Monarchy


100 years war

 Broke out 1336-1453 A.D.
 Long periods of truces
 England and French national Monarchy at war
 Went bad for France
 England started
 Disastrous defeat France
 Savage series of raids
 French in powerless conditions at the end
 Almost went under
 English lost  French took a turn


Joan of Arch

 Teenage girl
 Message from god to save France
 Recognized need to get heir to French thrown and properly crowned
 Without proper heir= lack of symbolism of France
 French was so under, allowed the king a standing army