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Flashcards in Romans Deck (45):

a) Quintus Fabius Maximus

(The Cunctator)
i) Fabius was the name of the clan he belonged to


b) Gens

i) Name for family
ii) There were family-based religions


c) Lares et Penates

i) Every morning family members would worship this
ii) The Spirit of past family members
(1) Ruled by a family patriarch


d) Patricians

i) One of the two groups of Roman Citizens
ii) Thought to be the “fathers” of roman people
iii) About 7% of the population


e) Plebeians

i) Were the CASTE members of society
ii) Pleb clans were typically protected by Patrician clans
iii) Could not be Priests or Lawmakers
(1) Only Patricians could


f) Consuls

i) The replacement of kings
ii) There were always 2
(1) Were elected by the roman body
iii) Each consul had a veto power
(1) Could forbid proposals of laws
iv) Could be a consul for 1 year, then had to wait 10 years to reapply
v) Had to be a specific age
(1) About 40
vi) Had to be a patrician


g) Senate

i) A small council
ii) Derived from the word for “old man”
iii) Meeting of elders
iv) About 100-300 people


h) Tribune

i) A Pleb mirror of the consuls
ii) Spike-people for the Plebs


i) Twelve Tablets

i) In 451 BC, was written upon these
ii) Plebs got this to happen


j) Plebiscite

i) Is when the “people” vote
ii) A decision of the Plebs
(1) In 287 BC, the Plebeians started being able to pass law
(2) In 366 BC, a Pleb could be a Consul


k) Ponic

i) An emerging power
ii) The Ponisians
(1) Somatic people
iii) Had a large trading network
(1) Had a very strong trading post at Carthage
(a) Right below Rome


l) Carthage

i) A superpower
ii) 264 BC war between Carthage and Rome
(1) Had a naval power
(a) Whereas Rome had a large land army
(2) The war dragged on until 240 BC
(a) Romans started making ships


m) Corvus

i) A device used to grapple ships together to make “land” to fight on
ii) Derived from the word for Crow
iii) Allowed for the romans to win the war
(1) They gained the island of Cecille and Sardinia


n) Latifundium

Due to low price of distressed farms, many rich people bought them out
(1) They changed the use from grain farming to ranching instead
(a) Less labour required
ii) Slavery really took off (198 BC)
(1) Constantly being captured
(2) Slaves were labourer’s
iii) Due to the growth of cities, immigration of displaced citizens occurred
iv) “Bread and Circus” started
(1) Sold bread for cheap
(2) Circus’s started up
v) Greco-Roman fusion
(1) Romans took over politically
(2) Greeks took over culturally


o) Equites

i) The people who could afford horses
ii) People who have made a lot of money
(1) Looking of recognition and status
iii) The CASTE division started to blur
iv) Optimates
(1) People who thought they were the best
v) Populares
(1) People in general
vi) Many people wanted to become Roman citizens as they would gain from taxation of the other provinces


p) Tiberius Gracchus

i) In 133 BC was elected as Tribune of the people
(1) Was a Pleb, but was looked at as being a Patrician
(2) Mother was the daughter of the man who defeated Hannibal
(a) Had high status
(3) Took a role that typically Plebs did
(4) Brought in land distribution bill
(a) Wanted to use public money and land
(b) Brought it directly to the assembly of Plebs
(i) Skipped the Senate
(c) It passed
(i) Senate was angered
1. Trusted one of the other 9 Tribunes would veto
a. One did
i. Tiberius challenged it and the person who vetoed was fired
ii) Said he was going to run again as Tribune again
(1) Typically had to wait ten years
(2) Senate was very unhappy
(a) Organized a mob and killed him


q) Gaives

i) Tiberius’s younger brother
ii) More of a politician
(1) Starts to build a “political machine”
(a) Got the equites on his side
(i) Said he would give them a place in society
(ii) Would staff them as Jurors
1. Instead of using people from the senate
(2) Tried to lower grain costs
(a) To gain the Populares people on his side
iii) 123 BC became Tribune
iv) 122 BC was Re-elected
v) 121 BC tried to run again
(1) Senate organized another mob
(a) Gaives killed himself


r) Social War

i) 90 BC
ii) Final push for the Allies to become citizens
(1) Threatened war
iii) War lasted until 88 BC
(1) Romans won
(a) But gave the Allies citizenship anyway


s) Proscription

i) Men would rise up and challenge those who were in power
(1) Civil wars
(a) Winner would post a hitlist on the members who lost
(i) Would gain the property of the loser
1. To gain money and support troops
a. “Riding a Tiger”
i. If the troops were unhappy they would turn on them


t) Pompey, Crassus and Caesar

i) In 50 BC, they unofficially came together
(1) Pompey
(a) a big army commander
(b) ridded the Mediterranean of pirates
(i) did it in 3 months
(2) Crassus
(a) Richest roman man
(b) Land speculation in Rome
(i) Bought land and made “apartments”
1. For displaced people
(3) Caesar
(a) Relatively poor
(b) Very ambitious
(c) “taken in” by the other two
ii) Together they were called “Triumvirate”
(1) They ran the roman system
(2) Crassus blew it
(a) Did not have a military pedigree
(i) Purchased an army
1. Tried to emulate what Alexander the Great did
a. Tried to fight Persia
i. Crassus was destroyed
(3) Turned into a 2-man show
(a) They drifted apart
(i) In 49 BC, a war broke out between Caesar and Pompey
1. Due to Caesar crossing the Rubicon river
a. The river bordered Italia
b. Was illegal
i. Thus, making Caesar an enemy of Rome
2. Caesar defeated Pompey



 Other council of 44 B.C.
 Other council then Caesar (always 2)
 Had Caesars paper ‘inside lead of people and threatened people



 Great nephew of Caesar
 Adopted great nephew as son and heir
 Heir to Caesars wealth
 Casesar incredibly rich
 Inherited loyalty
 2nd triumphite
 A revenge Caesar
 Another civil war on who killed Caesar
 Once got revenge Antony and Octauian
 Fell apart nothing binding them
 1st = tamed army
 Legions grew to 60 legions in 31 B.C.
 Huge military force
 Paid off 32 of legions overnight
 Generous pension money
 Some heat taken out= reduce
 Return remaining of frontier
 Keep barbarians out
 Made every soldier swear an oath to him
 All soldiers loyal to Octavian
 Commander of chief= imperator
 Americans base off of Romans
 He made one mistake
 Established the Praetorian Guard
 Personal force- small body of troupes
 They grow over time
 Usually gets greedy
 Like Hitler’s SS army
 Addressed a senate
 Purged the numbers
 Get rid of half the senators
 Ones that survived cut = favoured him “owed” him
 Tried to attain all senate meetings


27 B.C.

 Emergency period is over
 Things quiet down
 Got back to normal
 Chose to go before the senate and return emergency powers


Equate- middle class people

 Looks after equate
 Turn them to jobs in democracy gives status
 Appointing some equate to high military forces



 31 B.C.
 Octauian beat Antony
 Actium- battle fought here
 Naval battle
 Superior generalship and man power winning


How did Octauian succeed?

 He is first emperor of Rome
 Lived long natural life
 Shifted from republic to emperor
 Didn’t always succeed
 People must have been sickening by how society was



 Latin poet
 Big figure
 Contemporary of octauian



 Like Iliad/ odyssey
 Epic
 Founder of roman people
 Descendant of Rome
 Great longing of peace, new beginning
 Wanted end of savagery


Provinces split into 2 classes

1. Senatorial
2. Imperial -emperor appointing governor
-sometimes appointing equates to governor


Lower class:

 Extend policy of grain to be cheap or force
 Also meat Rations
 Forgive some debt reduction, take away
 Infrastructure, “found Rome as city of brick, left Rome a city of marble”
See remains today= imperial Rome


Octavian appointed 4 things

1. Army
2. Senate
3. Equate
4. People


More Octavian

Possession of Egypt- Octavian’s “piggy bank “
Caesar and Cleopatra = child
Secret of Octavian- refused to admit anything changed at all
“just another Roman”
Used this approach for every job he wanted
*that’s why gave up emergency powers*
Signs people gave him= Augustus= god like
He didn’t like being called Augustus so called him Princeps
31-27=Prince apale first Roman
Deathbed= on tombstone wrote= “the restorer of the Roman Republic”
 Roman empire= Mediterranean unity
 Started in Egypt



 North provinces to end Mediterranean
 Quite frontier
 Likely-man part (relax)


Rhine River

 Roman frontier in imperial period
 Not best frontier
 Push Northern boundaries to Norburne
 3 legion army to push out one more river
 3 A.D. ambushed by barbarians (wiped them out)
 Varus= general
 Push line out was never repeated



 Flows east
 Empty in black sea
 Boundary of North/Eastern empire
 Pushed lower line- 200 A.D.



 Upper and lower Province = Romania


Hot frontier

= constantly dangerous frontier
 Persians
 Recovered by take over
 Always hot frontier


Hadrian’s wall

 Built by emperor Hadrian
 C.120 A.D.
 Pushed Roman empire to Mediterranean golf
 Took over English
 Built line English to Scotland
 Consolidate on Mediterranean


a) Pax Romana

(100-180 AD)
i) The roman peace
ii) A rather good period in human history
iii) 4 emperors during this time
(1) Each chosen specifically by the people


b) Commodus

i) Narcistic ruler who broken the pattern of chosen rulers
ii) Lasted 12 years
(1) 192 AD, the Praetorian Guard assassinated him
(a) They then auctioned off the throne
iii) Late 2nd to 3rd century was a bad time
(1) Economy was collapsing
(a) Almost reverted back to bartering stage
(2) Army was no longer an attractive career choice
(a) People had to be forced to be soldiers
iv) 211-284 AD
(1) 21 emperors during this time
(a) 17 were assassinated
(b) 1 was captured by the Persians


c) Diocletian

i) Became emperor in 284 AD
ii) Pulled Rome back together
iii) Pushed the idea that he himself was a god
(1) Rarely showed himself physically
(a) Therefore, he was mysterious and powerful
iv) Decreed that people should stay where they were born
(1) Made professions heredity
v) Made price ceilings for everything
vi) Divided empire into west and east
(1) Co-Augustus for each side
(a) each had a Co-Caesar as well
(2) All 4 had to work together
(a) When a Co-Augustus died, their respective Co-Caesar would take their place
(i) A new Co-Caesar would be elected
vii) After Diocletian retired the system fell apart
(1) East and west would constantly split and rejoin
viii) Last single ruler died in 395 AD
(1) After that there was always more than one
(a) East and west
(i) East lasted until 1453 AD
(ii) West lasted until 476 AD
1. Last ruler was Romulus Augustus
a. Shared first name with the founder of Rome


d) Dominate period

2nd half of the empire


e) Principiate period

1st half of the empire


f) Decline and Fall

4th/5th century AD


i) Edward Gibbon

18th century AD
(1) Wrote about the decline and fall
(2) First person to write about this topic
(a) “The Triumph of Barbarism and Religion”
(i) Barbarism
1. Internal collapse of the Romans
2. Barbarian people were proto-nations
a. Allemani
b. “invaded Rome”
i. More like migrated gradually
c. Germanic Barbarians
i. Spoke a language that gave rise to Dutch, German and English
d. Huns
i. Well versed with horses
ii. 4th century they started to bump into Germanics above the black sea, therefore pushing them closer to the Romans
e. 376 AD The Visigoths (Germanic barbs)
i. Tried to strike a deal with the romans to get away from the Huns. The Romans accepted and labeled them as allies. The locals took advantage of them though by overcharging them and provoking them to fight.
ii. In 376 AD, the Visigoths fought the Romans in Adrianople. The Romans lost as the Visigoths had superior cavalry.