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Anatomic pathology > Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mediastinum Deck (125)
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Tumors of the superior mediastinum (4).

Thymoma, thymic cyst.

Lymphoma.

Thyroid lesions.

Parathyroid adenoma.

1

Tumors of anterior mediastinum (8).

Thymoma, thymic cyst.
Lymphoma.
Thyroid lesions.
Parathyroid adenoma.

Germ-cell tumors.
Paraganglioma.
Hemangioma.
Lipoma.

2

Tumors of the posterior mediastinum (2).

Neurogenic tumors.

Gastroenteric cyst.

3

Tumors of the middle mediastinum (3).

Pericardial cyst.

Bronchial cyst.

Lymphoma.

4

Thymic cyst: Most common location.

Anterior mediastinum.

5

Acquired thymic cyst: Associations (5).

Lymphomas, esp. Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Germ-cell tumors.

Other thymic tumors.

Congenital syphilis.

Previous thoracotomy.

6

Thymic cyst: Types based on gross pathology (2).

Unilocular: Thin wall; serous contents; congenital.

Multilocular: Thick wall; thick, turbid contents; acquired.

7

Thymic cyst: Lining (2).

Unilocular: Flat or cuboidal cells.

Multilocular: Variable but usually lined by flat cells.

8

Thymic cyst: Wall (3).

Unilocular: Usually no thymic remnants.

Multilocular: Thymic remnants.

Both: Inflammation, lymphoid follicles, cholesterol clefts; no differentiated soft tissue.

9

Cystic hygroma: Histology.

Cavernous spaces lined by flattened endothelium.

Collagenous stroma.

10

Thymic cyst vs. cystic thymoma.

Cystic thymoma: Thymomatous portion consists of disorganized thymic epithelium and T lymphocytes.

11

Bronchial cyst:

A. Age group.
B. Clinical sign.
C. Location.

A. Adults.

B. Movement with respiration.

C. Attached to trachea or main bronchus.

12

Bronchial cyst:

A. Lining.
B. Wall.
C. Contents.

A. Respiratory columnar epithelium, sometimes with squamous metaplasia.

B. Smooth muscle and cartilage.

C. Mucinous.

13

Esophageal cyst:

A. Synonym.
B. Age group.
C. Location.

A. Esophageal duplication.

B. Children and young adults.

C. At level of mid-esophagus.

14

Esophageal cyst:

A. Lining.
B. Wall.
C. Contents.

A. Squamous or columnar mucosa.

B. Double layer of smooth muscle is at least focally present.

C. Mucinous.

15

Enteric cyst:

A. Synonym.
B. Age group.

A. Foregut duplication cyst.

B. Infants and children.

16

Enteric cyst: Clinical associations (2).

Male sex.

Congenital anomalies of vertebrae, intestines, heart.

17

Enteric cyst: Location.

Posterior mediastinum, attached to vertebral column.

18

Enteric cyst:

A. Lining.
B. Wall.

A. Resembles lining of stomach, intestine, colon, or esophagus, complete with lamina propria.

B. Muscularis mucosae and muscularis propria; may contain ganglion cells.

19

Enteric cyst: Possible complications (3).

Respiratory symptoms.

Dysphagia due to compression.

Hemoptysis due to gastric acid.

20

Mesothelial cyst: Clinical presentation.

Usually asymptomatic.

21

Mesothelial cyst:

A. Lining.
B. Wall.
C. Contents.

A. Mesothelium.

B. Fibrous tissue; no smooth muscle.

C. Serous or (in some pericardial cysts) mucinous.

22

True thymic hyperplasia:

A. Age groups.
B. Associations (3).

A. Children; adults exposed to chemotherapy.

B. Myasthenia gravis, hyperthyroidism, other autoimmune diseases.

23

True thymic hyperplasia: Histology.

Same as that of normal thymus, but in an enlarged gland.

24

Thymic follicular hyperplasia: Associations.

Autoimmune diseases.

25

Thymic follicular hyperplasia:

A. Gross pathology.
B. Histology.

A. Usually normal size and weight.

B. Many follicles with germinal centers containing B lymphocytes.

26

Thymic follicular hyperplasia vs. normal thymic medulla.

Normal thymic medulla contains Hassall's corpuscles.

27

Thymolipoma:

A. Clinical presentation.
B. Histology.

A. Dyspnea and cough due to compression.

B. Mature fat mixed with strands of normal thymic tissue.

28

Thymolipoma vs. thymic involution.

The involuted thymus is normal in size or small for the patient's age.

29

Thymolipoma vs. lipoma.

Lipoma contains no thymic tissue.