Female 2 Flashcards Preview

Anatomic pathology > Female 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female 2 Deck (258)
Loading flashcards...
1

Follicular cyst vs. serous cystadenoma.

Follicular cyst: Theca interna layer.

2

Luteinized follicular cyst of pregnancy:

A. Median size.
B. Histology.

A. 25 cm.

B. Lined by luteinized cells with hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei.

3

Corpus-luteum cyst: Presentation (3).

Incidental.

Endocrine abnormalities, e.g. hyperestrinism, irregular menstruation.

Rupture and bleeding into the peritoneum.

4

Corpus-luteum cyst vs. corpus luteum.

The cyst is more than 2 cm in diameter.

5

Follicular cyst: Syndrome.

McCune−Albright:

− Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.
− Irregular patches of pigmented skin.
− Endocrine dysplasia.

6

Hyperreactio luteinalis:

A. Association.
B. Presentation (2).

A. Elevated hCG as in pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease.

B. Usually asymptomatic; may cause a mass.

7

Hyperreactio luteinalis: Gross pathology.

Both ovaries are enlarged by multiple thin-walled cysts filled with blood or serous fluid.

8

Hyperreactio luteinalis: Histology (2).

Cysts lined by luteinized theca interna with or without granulosa layer.

Ovarian stroma may be edematous.

9

Hyperreactio luteinalis vs. large luteinized follicular cyst of pregnancy.

The latter is solitary.

10

Hyperreactio luteinalis: Associated tumor.

Rarely coexists with a pregnancy luteoma.

11

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Typical age at presentation.

Third decade.

12

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Laboratory abnormalities (2).

Most cases: Increased ratio of LH to FSH.

Some cases: Hyperprolactinemia.

13

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Histology (3).

Ovarian cortex: Thickened, collagenous; thick-walled vessels.

Cysts: Follicular cysts in which only the theca interna is luteinized.

Stroma: Nodular luteinization; no corpora lutea or albicantia.

14

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Pathogenesis.

Hyperandrogenemia with increased conversion of androstenedione to estrone.

15

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Possible effects on the endometrium (2).

Hyperplasia.

Adenocarcinoma.

16

Stromal hyperthecosis: Typical age at presentation.

Postmenopausal.

17

Stromal hyperthecosis in premenopausal women: Presentations (2).

More common:
− Virilization.
− Obesity.
− Glucose intolerance.
− Hypertension.

Less common: Resembles PCOS.

18

Stromal hyperthecosis: Gross pathology.

The cut surface of BOTH ovaries contains white or yellow areas.

19

Stromal hyperthecosis: Histology.

Luteinized cells in the stroma occur singly or in clusters or nodules.

These luteinized cells are not associated with follicles.

20

HAIR-AN syndrome: Components.

Hyperandrogenemia.

Insulin resistance.

Acanthosis nigricans.

21

HAIR-AN syndrome: Histology of ovary.

In some cases, there is stromal hyperthecosis + edema and fibrosis.

22

Stromal hyperplasia: Presentation.

Similar to that of stromal hyperthecosis in premenopausal women.

23

Stromal hyperplasia: Gross pathology.

Similar to that of stromal hyperthecosis.

24

Stromal hyperplasia: Histology (2).

Diffuse or vaguely nodular increase in stromal cells.

Minimal collagen.

25

Stromal hyperplasia vs. ovarian fibroma.

Fibroma:

− Much collagen.
− Larger nuclei.

26

Stromal hyperplasia vs. low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the ovary (2).

LGESS:

− More mitotic figures.
− Regularly distributed thin-walled vessels.

27

Massive edema and fibrosis of the ovary:

A. Age group.
B. Presentation.

A. Second decade.

B. Abdominal pain.

28

Massive edema and fibrosis of the ovary:

A. Laterality.
B. Possible complication.

A. Usually unilateral.

B. Torsion.

29

Massive edema of the ovary: Gross pathology.

White cut surface with seeping fluid and sometimes with hemorrhage.

30

Massive edema of the ovary: Histology (3).

Edema of stroma with sparing of outer cortex.

Venous congestion and dilatation of lymphatics.

May contain clusters of lutein cells.