Flashcards in Bladder Deck (124)
Urothelial carcinoma of the ureter: Main prognostic factors (3).
Presence of synchronous tumor in renal pelvis.
Malakoplakia: Typical patient.
Woman in her fifth decade.
Malakoplakia: Gross pathology.
Multiple soft, yellow-white, nodular plaques on the mucosa.
Histiocytes of malakoplakia:
A. Von Hansemann's histiocytes.
B. Superficial lamina propria.
C. Abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.
Michaelis-Gutmann bodies of malakoplakia:
A. Within the histiocytes and in the interstitium.
B. Bacteria encrusted with calcium and iron.
Malakoplakia: Other histopathologic features (2).
Acute and chronic inflammation.
Malakoplakia: Putative pathophysiology.
Mononuclear cells cannot degrade bacteria normally.
A. Polypoid cystitis.
B. Follicular cystitis (2).
C. Giant-cell cystitis.
A. Indwelling catheter.
B. Bladder carcinoma; urinary-tract infection.
C. None; a pathologic rather than clinical diagnosis.
Polypoid cystitis: Histopathology (2).
Broad fronds covered by benign urothelium.
Edematous, inflamed, congested lamina propria.
Giant-cell cystitis: Histopathology (2).
Atypical large cells with tapering processes; may be multinucleate.
Very few or no mitotic figures.
Granulomatous cystitis secondary to BCG therapy: Gross pathology.
Partial or complete mucosal denudation.
Granulomatous cystitis secondary to BCG therapy: Histopathology (3).
Lamina propria: Noncaseating granulomas surrounded by lymphocytes.
Urothelium: Reactive atypia or denudation.
Granulomatous cystitis secondary to BCG therapy: Special stains.
AFB stain rarely discloses bacteria.
Ureteritis cystica and ureteritis: Histopathology.
Both represent cystic change in von Brunn's nests.
Ureteritis glandularis: Lined by columnar cells.
B. Gross pathology.
B. Nodular mucosa secondary to cysts.
Urothelial carcinoma of the ureter: Risk factors (3).
Urothelial carcinoma of the ureter: Most frequent location.
Lower third of the ureter.
Radiation cystitis: Timing (2).
Acute symptoms: 4-6 weeks after radiation.
Later symptoms: Up to 10 years after radiation.
Radiation cystitis: Gross pathology.
Mucosal hyperemia and edema with thick folds.
Radiation cystitis: Earlier histopathology (4).
Lamina propria: Edema and hyperemia.
Urothelium: Atypia with preserved N:C ratio.
Vessels: Dilatation, fibrin deposition.
Stroma: Inflammation, extravasated erythrocytes.
Radiation cystitis: Later histopathology (3).
Lamina propria: Fibrosis.
Vessels: Myo-intimal proliferation or medial hyalinization.
Hemorrhagic cystitis: Earlier histopathology (2).
Lamina propria: Hemorrhage, congestion.
Urothelium: Regenerative atypia.
Hemorrhagic cystitis: Later histopathology (2).
Lamina propria: Fibrosis.
Urothelium: Hyperplasia with formation of papillae.
Interstitial cystitis: Possible laboratory finding.
Interstitial cystitis: Possible cystoscopic findings (3).
Interstitial cystitis: Later gross finding.
Fibrotic and contracted bladder with diminished capacity.
Interstitial cystitis: Early histopathology.
Interstitial cystitis: Histopathology of ulcerative phase (3).
Increase in mast cells.
Hemorrhage, congestion, fibrosis.
Interstitial cystitis: Main differential diagnosis.
Carcinoma in situ must be excluded before interstitial cystitis can be diagnosed.