Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 3 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 3 Deck (188):
1

mesentery

fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

2

midsagittal plane

sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves - midline

3

muscle tissue

cells with specialized ability to contract and relax

4

muscular dystrophy (MD)

describes a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement

5

nerve tissue

cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses

6

nosocomial infection

disease acquired in a hospital or clinical settings

7

nucleus

a structure within the cell that has two important functions - controls activities of cell, and helps cell divide

8

organ

somewhat independent part of the body that performs a special function

9

organic disorder

produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in body (chickenpox)

10

pan-

entire

11

pandemic

outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide

12

parietal

cavity wall

13

parietal peritoneum

outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

14

path(o)-

disease

15

pathogen

disease-producing microorganism such as virus

16

pathologist

specializes in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis

17

pathology

study of nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function

18

pelv-

pelvis

19

pelvic cavity

space formed by the hip bones - contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

20

periton

peritoneum (multi-layered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity)

21

peritoneum

multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity

22

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

23

phenylketonuria

genetic disorder in which essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing - PKU

24

physi-

nature or physical

25

physiology

study of the functions of the structures of the body

26

poster(o)-

situated in the back or back part of an organ (opposite of anter-)

27

posterior

situated in the back; on the back part of an organ

28

postmortem

after death

29

premature birth

birth that occurs earlier than 37 weeks of development - (often breathing difficulties and heart problems)

30

prenatal influences

the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does, or does not, receive before delivery

31

proximal

situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure (opposite to distal)

32

quadrant

divided into four

33

recessive gene

when inherited from BOTH parents, offspring WILL have condition - when inherited from ONLY ONE parent, offspring WILL NOT have condition

34

regions of the thorax and abdomen

descriptive system that divides abdomen and lower portion of thorax into nine parts

35

retro-

behind

36

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum

37

RLQ

right lower quadrant (abdomen)

38

rubella infection

if woman had it during early pregnancy can result in birth defect

39

RUQ

right upper quadrant (abdomen)

40

sagittal plane

vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

41

secretion

the substance produced by a gland

42

sex cell

(sperm or egg) known as gamete, the only type of cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes

43

sickle cell anemia

recessively inherited blood disorder, characterized by an abnormality in the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells

44

somatic

pertaining to body

45

somatic cell

any cell in the body except gametes (sex cells)

46

somatic cell mutation

change within cells of the body, cannot be transmitted

47

spinal cavity

located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord

48

stem cells

unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

49

superior

uppermost, above, or toward the head (opposite to inferior)

50

Tay-Sachs disease (TAY SAKS)

fatal generic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain - (recessive)

51

thoracic cavity

known as chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs - chest cavity or thorax

52

tissue

group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions

53

transmission

spread of disease

54

transverse plane

horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

55

umbilical region

surrounds the umbilicus

56

umbilicus

commonly known as the belly button or navel

57

undifferentiated

not having a specialized function or structure

58

vector

insects or animals like flies, mites, ticks, fleas, rats, and dogs that are capable of transmitting disease

59

vector-borne transmission

spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector (flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, dogs)

60

ventr-

belly side of the body

61

ventral

refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body (opposite of dorsal)

62

ventral cavity

located along the front of the body, contains the body organs and maintain homeostasis

63

vertical plane

an up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon

64

visceral

relating to the internal organs

65

visceral peritoneum

inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

66

ankyl(o)-

crooked, bent or stiff

67

arthr(o)-

joint

68

chondr(o)-

cartilage

69

cost(o)-

ribs

70

crani(o)-

skull

71

-desis

surgical fixation of bone or joint

72

kyph(o)-

hump

73

lord(o)-

bent backward

74

-lysis

loosening or setting free

75

myel(o)-

bone marrow

76

oss(e)- / oss(i)- / ost(o)- / oste(o)-

bone

77

scoli(o)-

curved

78

spondyl(o)-

vertebrae

79

synovi(o)- / synov(o)-

synovial membrane

80

-um

noun ending

81

skeletal system (8 parts)

consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid and bursa

82

periosteum

tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

83

compact bone

dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms protective outer layer of bones

84

spongy bone

lighter and not as strong as compact bone, found in ends and inner portions of long bones - red bone marrow found within

85

medullary cavity

central cavity located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone

86

endosteum

tissue that lines the medullary cavity

87

red bone marrow

located in spongy bone - hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes

88

hemopoietic

pertaining to formation of blood cells

89

yellow bone marrow

functions as a fat storage area - located in the medullary cavity

90

cartilage

smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones

91

articular cartilage

covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints - makes smooth movement possible and protects bones from rubbing against each other

92

meniscus

curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints (knee and temporomandibular joint)

93

diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

94

epiphysis

wider ends of long bones such as femurs of the legs, covered with articular cartilage for protection

95

foramen

opening in a bone trough which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

96

process

normal projection on surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons

97

joints

place of union between two or more bones - articulations

98

name the 3 types of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

99

fibrous joint

consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue - hold bones together

100

fontanelles

flexible soft spots that facilitate passage of infant through birth canal and allow for growth of skull during first year - soft spots

101

cartilaginous joints

allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage (ribs to sternum)

102

pubic symphysis

cartilaginous joint located between the pubic bones in the anterior of the pelvis to facilitate childbirth

103

synovial joint

created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions - ball and socket joints and hinge joints

104

name the components of a synovial joint (5)

synovial capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, ligaments, and bursa

105

synovial capsule

outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds joint

106

synovial membrane

lines synovial capsule - secretes synovial fluid

107

synovial fluid

acts as a lubricant to make smooth movement of joint possible

108

ligaments

bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another, or joining a bone to cartilage

109

bursa

fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone

110

axial skeleton

protects major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems

111

appendicular skeleton

126 bones that are organized into the upper extremities (shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands) and the lower extremities (hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet)

112

skull

consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear

113

major parts of the skull

cranium (8 bones), face (14 bones), middle ear (6 bones)

114

cranium

portion of skull that encloses brain

115

bones of the cranium

frontal, parietal (2), occipital, temporal (2), sphenoid, ethmoid

116

frontal bone

forms the forehead

117

parietal bones

form most of the roof and upper sides of cranium

118

occipital bone

forms posterior floor and walls of cranium

119

temporal bones

for sides and base of cranium

120

sphenoid bone

forms part of base of skull and parts of floor and sides of orbit

121

ethmoid bone

forms part of posterior portion of nose, orbit, and floor of cranium

122

auditory ossicles

six (6) tiny bones of middle ear

123

external auditory meatus

located in temporal bone - opening of external auditory canal of outer ear

124

facial bones (14)

nasal (2), zygomatic (2), maxillary (2), palatine (2), lacrimal (2), inferior conchae (2), vomer, mandible

125

nasal bones

two bones that form upper part of the bridge of nose

126

zygomatic bones

articulate with the frontal bone (forehead) - cheekbones

127

maxillary bones

form most of upper jaw

128

palatine bones

form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

129

lacrimal bones

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of eye

130

inferior conchae

thin, scroll-like bones that form part of interior of nose

131

vomer bone

forms base for nasal septum

132

mandible

only movable bone of the skull - attached to the skull at TMJ - jawbone

133

temporo-mandibular joint

attaches the jawbone to the skull - TMJ

134

thoracic cavity

bony structure that protects the heart and lungs - consists of ribs, sternum, and upper portion of spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm - not including arms

135

ribs

attach posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae - 12 pairs - costals

136

cost/o

rib

137

sternum

forms the middle of front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts - breastbone

138

manubrium

bony structure that forms the upper portion of sternum

139

body of the sternum

bony structure that forms the middle portion of sternum

140

xiphoid process

structure made of cartilage that forms lower portion of sternum

141

pectoral girdle

formed by the shoulders, which support the arms and hands

142

clavicle

slender bone that connects manubrium of the sternum to scapula - collar bone

143

scapula

shoulder blade

144

acromion

extension of scapula that forms high point of shoulder

145

humerus

bone of upper arm

146

radius

smaller and shorter bone in forearm - runs up the thumb side of the forearm

147

ulna

larger and longer bone of forearm

148

olecranon process

large projection on upper end of the ulna - funny bone

149

carpals

8 bones that form the wrist

150

metacarpals

5 bones that form the palm of the hand

151

phalanges

14 bones of the fingers - the bones of the toes

152

spinal column

supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord

153

vertebrae

bony structure units of the spinal column

154

cervical vertebrae

first set of 7 vertebrae that form the neck - C1 through C7

155

thoracic vertebrae

second set of 12 vertebrae - form outward curve of spine - T1 through T12

156

lumbar vertebrae

third set of five vertebrae - form inward curve of lower spine - L1 through L5

157

sacrum

slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of spine - forms the lower portion of back

158

coccyx

forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together (tailbone)

159

intervertebral disks

made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other

160

pelvic girdle

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremeties; a cup-shaped ring of bone at the lower end of the trunk that consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis

161

ilium

the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

162

sacroiliac

the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium

163

ischium

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone and bears the weight of the body when sitting

164

pubis

forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, located just below the urinary bladder

165

pubic symphysis

the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth

166

acetabulum

large circular cavity in each side of pelvis that articulates with the head of femur to form the hip joint - hip socket

167

femur

the upper leg bone (largest bone in the body)

168

knees

complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg

169

patella

bony anterior portion of the knee (kneecap)

170

popliteal

referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located

171

cruciate ligaments

make possible the movements of the knee

172

tibia

larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg (shinbone)

173

fibula

smaller of the two bones of the lower leg

174

malleolus

the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle

175

ankles

form the joint between the lower leg and the foot

176

tarsal

seven short bones which form the ankle

177

talus

the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

178

calcaneus

the largest of the tarsal bones (heel bone)

179

metatarsals

form the part of the foot to which the toes are attached

180

chiropractor

holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

181

orthopedic surgeon

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

182

osteopath

holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

183

podiatrist

holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

184

pod-

foot

185

ankylosis

the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure

186

arthrosclerosis

stiffness of the joints, especially in elderly

187

bursitis

an inflammation of a bursa

188

burs-

bursa