Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 7 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 7 Deck (188):
1

hemolytic

destroying worn-out red blood cells and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse

2

herpes zoster

an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve

3

Hodgkin's lymphoma

distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Stenberg cells

4

human immunodefiiency virus (HIV)

a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail

5

immunodeficiency disorder

occurs when the immune response is compromised

6

immunoglobulins

bind with specific antigens in te antigen-antibody response

7

immunosuppressant

a substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response

8

immunotherpy

a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response

9

infectious mononucleosis

an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes

10

inflitrating ductal carcinoma

starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the fatty breast tissue

11

interferon

a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication

12

lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lymph nodes

13

lymphangioma

a benign tumor formed by an abnormal ollection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system

14

lymphedema

swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues

15

lymphocytes

white blood cells that are formed in the bone marrow as stem cells

16

lymphokines

direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system

17

lymphoma

a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues

18

lymphoscientigraphy

a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels

19

macrophage

a type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills invading cells

20

malaria

a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito

21

mammography

a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells

22

metastasis

a new cancer site that results from the spreading process

23

metastasize

the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another

24

myoma

a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue

25

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodkin's lymphoma

26

opportunistic infection

caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans

27

osteosarcoma

a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee

28

parasite

a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism.

29

pathogen

a microorganism that causes a disease in humans

30

rabies

an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal

31

rickettsia

a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites

32

rubella

a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash

33

sarcoma

a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues

34

spirochetes

spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement

35

splenomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the spleen

36

staphylococci

a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes

37

teletherapy

radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body

38

tetanus

caused by the bacillus Clostridium tetani and is transmitted through a cut or wound

39

toxoplasmosis

a parasite which is most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces

40

varicella

a viral condition characterized by a fever and a rash consisting of hundreds of itch, fluid-fleed blisters that burt and form crusts

41

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

a form of the sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult

42

airway inflammation

the swelling and clogging of the airways with mucus

43

airway obstruction

occurs when food or a foreign object blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs

44

allergic rhinitis

an allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus

45

alveoli

the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole

46

anoxia

the absence or nearly complete absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues

47

anthracosis

the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease

48

antitussive

administered to prevent or relieve coughing (cough medicine)

49

aphonia

the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds

50

apnea

the absence of spontaneous respiration

51

asbestosis

the form of pneumoconios caused by asbestos particles in the lungs

52

asphyxia

the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function

53

asphyxiation

any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia; also known as suffocation

54

aspiration pneumonia

can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs

55

asthma

a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing

56

atelectasis

a condition in which the lung fails to expand completely due to shallow breathing or because the air passages are blocked

57

bacterial pneumonia

often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae; is the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination

58

bradypnea

an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute

59

bronchi

formed where the trachea divides into two branches known as the primary bronchi

60

bronchioles

the smallest branches of the bronchi

61

bronchodilator

a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs

62

bronchopneumonia

a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles and surrounding alveoli

63

bronchorrhea

an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

64

bronchoscopy

the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

65

bronchospasm

a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut

66

byssinosis

caused by inhaling cotton dust into the lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory

67

chest imaging

chest x-ray; a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and emphysema

68

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea

69

chronic bronchitis

a condition where the airways have become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells

70

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe; COPD

71

cilia

the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils

72

collapsed lung

a lung that is unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis

73

CPAP device

positive pressure ventilation device; treatment for sleep apnea that includes a mask, tubes, and a fan to create air pressure that pushes the tongue forward to maintain an open airway

74

croup

an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough

75

cyanosis

a bluish discoloration or the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen

76

cystic fibrosis

a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus

77

diaphragm

the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen

78

diaphragmatic breathing

a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety

79

diphtheria

an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract

80

dysphonia

any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty

81

dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath

82

emphysema

the progressive loss of lung function that is commonly attributed to long-term smoking

83

empyema

an accumulation of pus or infected fluid in the pleural cavity

84

endotracheal intubation

the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

85

epiglottis

a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue

86

epistaxis

bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders; also known as a nosebleed

87

ethmoid sinuses

located in the ethmoid bones, separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone

88

eupnea

easy or normal breathing

89

exhalation

the act of breathing out

90

external respiration

the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs and exchanging gases from this air

91

frontal sinuses

located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows; an infection here can cause severe pain in this area

92

functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)

a procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus

93

hemoptysis

coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum

94

hemothorax

an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

95

hypercapnia

the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

96

hyperpnea

an increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements

97

hyperventilation

an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety

98

hypopnea

shallow or slow respiration

99

hypoxemia

a condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood

100

hypoxia

the condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells; less severe than anoxia

101

influenza

an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months

102

inhalation

the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward

103

internal respiration

the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues

104

interstitial fibrosis

another name for the inflammation and thickening of the walls of the alveoli

105

interstitial lung diseases

a group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures

106

laryngectomy

the surgical removal of the larynx

107

laryngitis

an inflammation of the larynx

108

laryngopharynx

the third division of the pharynx, is shared by both the respiratory and digestive systems

109

laryngoplasty

the surgical repair of the larynx

110

laryngoplegia

paralysis of the larynx

111

laryngoscopy

the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope

112

laryngospasm

the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx

113

larynx

the voice box; a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea

114

left lung

has 2 lobes: superior and inferior

115

lobar pneumonia

affects larger areas of the lungs, often including one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung

116

lobectomy

the surgical removal of a lobe of the lung

117

lower respiratory tract

consists of the bronchial tree and lungs

118

lung cancer

a condition in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the lung

119

lungs

the organs of respiration

120

Mantoux PPD skin test

a more accurate skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis

121

maxillary sinuses

located in the maxillary bones; an infection here can cause pain in the posterior maxillary teeth

122

mediastinum

the cavity located between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, and thymus gland

123

metered-dose inhaler

mixes a single dose of the medication with a puff of air and pushes it into the mouth via a chemical propellant

124

mucous membranes

the specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems

125

mucus

secreted by the mucous membranes

126

mycoplasma pneumonia

a milder but longer lasting form of the disease caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae

127

nasal septum

a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections

128

nasopharynx

the first division of the pharynx, posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth

129

nebulizer

pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece

130

olfactory receptors

nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell

131

oropharynx

the second division of the pharynx, the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth

132

otolaryngologist

a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck; also known as an ENT

133

paranasal sinuses

air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, located in the bones of the skull

134

parietal pleura

the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung

135

peak flow meter

a handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel air

136

pertussis

a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract

137

pharyngitis

an inflammation of the pharynx

138

pharyngoplasty

the surgical repair of the pharynx

139

pharyngotomy

a surgical incision of the pharynx

140

pharynx

the throat; receives the air after it passes through the nose

141

phlegm

thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages

142

phrenic nerves

stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract

143

pleura

a thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage

144

pleural cavity

the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes

145

pleural effusion

the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

146

pleurectomy

the surgical removal of part of the pleura

147

pleurisy

an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath

148

pleurodynia

pain in the pleura or in the side that occurs in relation to breathing movements

149

pneumoconiosis

an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact

150

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

an opportunistic infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii

151

pneumonectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of a lung

152

pneumonia

a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid

153

pneumorrhagia

bleeding from the lungs

154

pneumothorax

the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse

155

polysomnography

the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep; also known as a sleep apnea study

156

pulmonary edema

an accumulation of fluid in lung tissue

157

pulmonary fibrosis

the formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing

158

pulmonary function tests

a group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer

159

pulmonologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues

160

pulse oximeter

an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood

161

pyothorax

the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane

162

respiration

the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life

163

respirator

an apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure

164

respiratory failure

a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high

165

respiratory system

brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells

166

rhinorrhea

the watery flow of mucus from the nose

167

right lung

has 3 lobes: superior, middle, and inferior

168

septoplasty

the surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum

169

silicosis

caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, and sandblasting

170

sinusitis

an inflammation of the sinuses

171

sleep apnea syndromes

a group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels

172

smoke inhalation

damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent the normal exchange of gases

173

sphenoid sinuses

located in the sphenoid bone, close to the optic nerves; an infection here can damage vision

174

spirometer

a recording device that measure the amount of air inhaled or exhaled (volume) and the length of time required for each breath

175

sputum

phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes

176

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of 2 weeks and 1 year

177

supplemental oxygen

administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood

178

tachypnea

an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually or more than 20 breaths per minute

179

thoracentesis

the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity

180

thoracostomy

the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity to establish drainage of empyema

181

thoracotomy

a surgical treatment of lung cancer by removing all or part of a lung

182

tonsils

form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the respiratory system

183

trachea

the tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest; the windpipe

184

tracheoplasty

the surgical repair of the trachea

185

tracheorrhagia

bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea

186

tracheostomy

the surgical creation of an opening into the trachea and insertion of a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions

187

tracheotomy

an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage

188

tuberculin skin testing

a screening test for tuberculosis in which the skin of the arm is injected with a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria