Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 9 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 9 Deck (188):
1

stomach

a sac-like organ composed of the fundus, body, and antrum

2

stomatomycosis

any disease of the mouth due to a fungus

3

stomatoplasty

the surgical repair of the mouth

4

stomatorrhagia

bleeding from any part of the mouth

5

stool samples

specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics

6

strangulated hernia

occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off

7

temporomandibular disorder

part of the group of complex symptoms that include pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing athat are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint

8

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together

9

total parenteral nutrition

administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating

10

transverse colon

passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen

11

trismus

any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer

12

ulcerative colitis

a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation

13

upper and lower GI series

radiographic studies to examine the digestive system

14

uvula

hangs from the free edge of the soft palate

15

vermiform appendix

hangs from the lower portion of the cecum

16

villi

finger-like projections that cover the mucosa that lines the small intestine

17

volvulus

the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction

18

xerostomia

the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth

19

ablation

the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function

20

acute renal failure (ARF)

has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia

21

anuria

the absence of urine formation by the kidneys

22

benign prostatis hypertrophy

an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50

23

bladder retraining

a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals

24

bladder ultrasound

the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination

25

catheterization

performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder

26

chronic renal failure

the progressive loss of renal functions

27

computed tomography

used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system

28

cystalgia

pain in the urinary bladder

29

cystectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

30

cystitis

an inflammation of the bladder

31

cystocele

a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a fallen bladder

32

cystography

a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

33

cystolith

a stone located in the urinary bladder

34

cystopexy

the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

35

cystorrhaphy

the surgical suturing of the bladder

36

cystoscopy

the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

37

dialysis

a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

38

diuresis

the increased output of urine

39

digital rectal examination

performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer

40

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

41

edema

excessive fluid in the body tissues

42

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys

43

enuresis

the involuntary discharge of urine

44

epispadias

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris

45

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel

46

female urethra

approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine

47

glomerulonephritis

a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright's disease

48

glomerulus

a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman's capsule

49

hemodialysis

the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys

50

hemolytic uremic syndrome

a condition in which hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia cause acute renal failure and possibly death

51

hydronephrosis

the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys

52

hydroureter

the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

53

hyperproteinuria

the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine

54

hypospadias

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina

55

incontinence

the inability to control excretory functions

56

indwelling catheter

one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time

57

interstitial cystitis

a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

58

intravenous pyelogram

a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract

59

Kegel exercises

a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women

60

Kidneys

a pair of bean-shaped organs that filter water and waste materials from the blood

61

KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)

a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium

62

lithotomy

a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder

63

male urethra

approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen

64

meatotomy

a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

65

medulla

the inner region of the kidney

66

nephrectasis

the distention of a kidney

67

nephritis

an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys

68

nephrolith

a stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone

69

nephrolithiasis

a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney

70

nephrolithotomy

the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney

71

nephrologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys

72

nephrolysis

the freeing of a kidney from adhesions

73

nephron

a functional unit of the kidney

74

nephropathy

any disease of the kidney including degenerative and inflammatory conditions

75

nephropexy

the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

76

nephroptosis

the prolapse of a kidney

77

nephropyosis

suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney

78

nephrosis

any degenerative kidney disease causing nephrotic syndrome without inflammation

79

nephrostomy

the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body

80

neurogenic bladder

a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

81

nocturia

excessive urination during the night

82

nocturnal enuresis

urinary incontinence during sleep

83

oliguria

scanty urination

84

overactive bladder (OAB)

occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active

85

paraspadias

a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening is on the side of the penis

86

percutaneous nephrolithotomy

treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back

87

peritoneal dialysis

dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood

88

polycystic kidney disease

a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

89

polyuria

excessive urination

90

prostate gland

part of the male reproductive system and surrounds the urethra

91

prostatectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

92

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

blood test used to screen for prostate cancer

93

prostatism

the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy

94

pyelitis

an inflammation of the renal pelvis

95

pyelonephritis

an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney

96

pyeloplasty

the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

97

pyelotomy

a surgical incision into the renal pelvis

98

renal

pertaining to the kidneys

99

renal colic

an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone

100

renal cortex

the outer region of the kidney

101

renal failure

the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions

102

renal pelvis

the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla

103

renal transplantation

the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys; a kidney transplant

104

retrograde urography

a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract

105

stone

an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body; also known as a calculus

106

stress incontinence

the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

107

suprapubic catheterization

the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

108

transurethral prostatectomy

the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope

109

trigone

the smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder located between the openings of the ureter and urethra

110

trigonitis

an inflammation of the urinary bladder that is localized in the region of the trigone

111

urea

the major waste product of protein metabolism

112

uremia

a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood

113

ureterectasis

the distention of a ureter

114

ureterectomy

the surgical removal of a ureter

115

ureterolith

a stone located in a ureter

116

ureteroplasty

the surgical repair of a ureter

117

ureterorrhagia

the discharge of blood from the ureter

118

ureterorrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a ureter

119

ureters

two narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

120

urethra

the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body

121

urethral catheterization

peformed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder

122

urethral meatus

the external opening of the urethra

123

urethritis

an inflammation of the urethra

124

urethropexy

the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence

125

urethrorrhagia

bleeding from the urethra

126

urethrorrhea

an abnormal discharge from the urethra

127

urethrostenosis

abnormal narrowing of the urethra

128

urethrostomy

the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

129

urethrotomy

a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

130

urinalysis

the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

131

urinary bladder

a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

132

urinary hesitancy

difficulty in starting a urinary stream

133

urinary incontinence

the inability to control the voiding of urine

134

urinary tract infection (UTI)

an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system

135

urination

the normal process of excreting urine

136

urochrome

the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color

137

urologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males

138

vesicovaginal fistula

an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

139

voiding cystourethrography

a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra

140

Wilms tumor

a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children

141

Caus/o

Burning, burn

142

Cerebr/o

Cerebrum, brain

143

Concuss/o

Shaken together, violently agitated

144

Contus/o

Bruise

145

Encephal/o

Brain

146

-esthesia

Sensation, feeling

147

Esthet/o

Feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception

148

-graphy

Process of producing a picture or record

149

Mening/o

Membranes, meninges

150

Myel/o

Spinal cord, bone marrow

151

Neur/o, Neru/o

Nerve, nerve tissue

152

Phobia

Abnormal fear

153

Psych/o

Mind

154

Radicul/o

Root or Nerve root

155

Tropic

Having an affinity for

156

Acrophobia

Excessive fear of heights.

157

Alzheimer's Disease

Group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language.

158

Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis

Rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.

159

Anesthetic

Medication used to induce anesthesia.

160

Anesthetist

Medical Professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician. EX nurse anesthetist.

161

Anxiety Disorders

Mental conditions characterized by excessive, irrational dread of everyday situation, or fear that is out of proportion to the real danger in a situation.

162

Autism

Subgroup of autistic spectrum disorders.

163

Bell's Palsy

Temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only on the affected side of the face.

164

Carotid Ultrasonography

Ultrasound study of the carotid artery that is performed to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke.

165

Causalgia

Persistent, severe, burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve.

166

Cerebral Palsy

Condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, and other neurologic deficiencies.

167

Cervical Radiculopathy

Nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region.

168

Claustrophobia

Abnormal fear of being in small or enclosed spaces.

169

Cognition

Mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.

170

Coma

Deep state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye moments, no response to painful stimuli, and no vocalization.

171

Concussion

Violent shaking up or jarring of the brain.

172

Delirium

Acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disorders thinking and memory, agitation, and hallucinations.

173

Delirium Tremens

Disorder involving sudden and sever mental changes or seizures caused by abruptly stopping the use of alcohol.

174

Delusion

False personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.

175

Dementia

Slowly progressive decline in mental abilities including memory, thinking, and judgement that is often accompanied by personality changes.

176

Dura Mater

Thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges.

177

Dyslexia

Learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols.

178

Echoencephalography

Use of ultrasound imaging to create a detailed visual image of the brain for diagnostic purposes.

179

Electroencephalography

Process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the us of electrodes attached to the scalp.

180

Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain.

181

Epidural Anesthesia

Regional anesthesia produced by injecting medication into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine.

182

Epilepsy

Chronic neurologic condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity

183

Factitious Disorder

Condition in which a person acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick.

184

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

Inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that may lead to temporary paralysis.

185

Hydrocephalus

Condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates within the ventricles.

186

Hypochondriasis

Condition characterized by fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance.

187

Hyperesthesia

Condition of abnormal and excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli.

188

Ischemic Stroke

Most common type of stroke in older people, occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked by the narrowing or blockage of a carotid artery.