Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 10 Flashcards Preview

Northview HOSA Bowl 2015 > Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 10 Deck (188):
1

Lethargy

Lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy.

2

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord.

3

Meningocele

Congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column.

4

Migraine Headache

Characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head.

5

Multiple Sclerosis

Progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation resulting in scattered patches of demyelinated nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.

6

Myelitis

Inflammation of the spinal cord.

7

Myelography

Radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium through a lumbar puncture.

8

Neurotransmitters

Chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse

9

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions.

10

Panic Attack

Unexpected sudden experience of fear in the absence of danger, accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest tightness, dizziness, sweating, nausea, feelings of unreality, choking sensations, or a combination of these.

11

Paresthesia

Burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body.

12

Parkinson's Disease

Chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, and a slow or shuffling gait.

13

Peripheral Neuropathy

Disorder of the peripheral nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord.

14

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

May develop after an event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the individual or someone else, during which the person felt intense fear, helpless ness, or horror.

15

Reye's Syndrome

Potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting and confusion.

16

Sciatica

Inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of the affected nerve through the thigh, leg, and foot.

17

Seizure

Sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain that affects how a person feels or acts for a short time.

18

Shaken Baby Syndrome

Results of a child being violently shaken by someone. Can cause brain injury, blinds, fractures, seizures, paralysis, and death.

19

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve. These sudden, intense, brief attacks of sharp pain affect the cheek, lips, and gums only on the side of the face innervated by the affected nerve.

20

Nervous System

Consists of the nerves, brain, spinal cord, and sensory organs. Controls all bodily activities.

21

Sensory Organs

Consists of the eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue.

22

Central Nervous System

Receive and process information, and to regulate all bodily activity. Include the brain and spinal cord.

23

Peripheral Nervous System

Transmit nerve signals to and from the central nervous system.

24

Neurons

Basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other.

25

Nerve

One or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body.

26

Ascending Nerve Tracts

Carry nerve impulses towards the brain.

27

Descending Nerve Tracts

Carry nerve impulses away from the brain.

28

Ganglion

Nerve center made up of a cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous.

29

Innervation

Supply of nerves to a specific body part.

30

Receptors

Sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation.

31

Reflex

Automatic involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body.

32

Afferent Neurons

Neurons emerge from the sensory organs and the skin to carry the impulses from the sensory organs toward the brain and spinal cord. Also known as sensory neurons.

33

Connecting Neurons

Neurons link afferent and efferent neurons. Also known as Associative neurons.

34

Efferent Neurons

Neurons carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward the muscles and glands. Also known as motor neurons.

35

Synapse

Space between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor organ.

36

Acetylcholine

Released at some synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular junctions; it influences muscle action.

37

Dopamine

Released within the brain. Believed to be involved in mood and though disorders and in abnormal movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

38

Endorphins

Naturally occurring substances that are produced by the brain to help relieve pain.

39

Norepinephrine

Affects alertness and arousal, increasing blood pressure and heart rate, and releasing stores of glucose in response to stress.

40

Glial Cells

Provide support and protection for neurons, and their four main functions are to surround neurons and hold them in place, supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, to insulate one neuron from another, and to destroy and remove dead neurons.

41

Myelin Sheath

Protective covering made up of glial cells.

42

White Matter

Portion of the nerve fibers that are myelinated.

43

Gray Matter

Portion of the nerve fibers that are unmyelinated.

44

Meninges

System of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord.

45

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Clear, colorless, and watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord. Cool and cushion these organs from shock or injury. Nourish the brain and spinal cord by transporting nutrients and chemical messengers to these tissues.

46

Cerebrum

Largest and uppermost portion of the brain. Responsible for all thought, judgement, memory, and emotion, as well as for controlling and integrating motor and sensory functions.

47

Frontal Lobe

Controls skilled motor functions, memory, and behavior.

48

Parietal Lobe

Receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the tongue, skin, and muscles.

49

Occipital Lobe

Controls eyesight.

50

Temporal Lobe

Controls the senses of hearing and smell, and the ability to create, store, and access new information.

51

Spinal Cord

Long fragile tube-like structure that begins at the end of the brainstem and continues down almost to the bottom of the spinal column. Contains all the nerves that affect the limbs and lower part of the body, and serves as the pathway for impulses traveling to and from the brain. Surrounded an protected by cerebrospinal fluid and the meninges.

52

Anesthesiologist

Specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery.

53

Neurologist

Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system.

54

Neurosurgeon

Specializes in surgery of the nervous system

55

Psychiatrist

Specializes in the diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness.

56

Psychologist

Specialist evaluates and treats emotional problems and mental illness.

57

Tetanus

An acute and potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria. Also known as lockjaw.

58

Amnesia

Memory disturbance characterized by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences.

59

Concussion

Violent shaking up or jarring of the brain.

60

Cerebral Contusion

Bruising of the brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull.

61

Cranial Hematoma

Collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain.

62

Levels Of Consciousness

Measurement of response to arousal and stimulus.

63

Stupor

Unresponsive state from which a person can be aroused only briefly despite vigorous, repeated attempts.

64

Syncope

Brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain.

65

Brain Tumor

Abnormal growth located inside the skull.

66

Intracranial Pressure

Amount of pressure inside the skull.

67

Cerebrovascular Accident

Condition is damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the bran is disrupted because a blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured.

68

Transient Ischemic Attack

Sometimes referred to as a mini-stroke, temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain.

69

Aphasia

Caused by brain damage associated with a stroke, loss of the ability to speak, write and/or comprehend the written or spoken word.

70

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks.

71

Narcolepsy

Deep sleep disorder consisting of sudden and uncontrollable brief episodes of falling during the day.

72

Poliomyelitis

Highly contagious viral infections of the brainstem

73

Lumbar Puncture

Process of obtaining a sample of cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region to withdraw fluid

74

General Anesthetic

Involves the total loss of body sensation and consciousness induced by anesthetic agents administered primarily by inhalation or intravenous injection.

75

Local Anesthetic

Causes the loss of sensation in a limited area by injection an anesthetic solution near that area.

76

Regional Anesthesia

Temporary interruption of nerve conduction, is produced by injecting an anesthetic solution near the nerves to be blocked.

77

Neurorrhaphy

Surgically suturing together the ends of a severed nerve.

78

Psychotic Disorder

Characterized by the loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social functioning.

79

Catatonic Behavior

Marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture.

80

Hallucination

Sensory perception experienced in the absence of external stimulation.

81

Schizophrenia

Psychotic disorder usually characterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions, and hallucinations, and accompanied in varying degrees by other emotional, behavioral, or intellectual disturbances.

82

AD

Alzheimer's Disease

83

ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

84

ADHD

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

85

CP

Cerebral Palsy

86

CSF

Cerebrospinal Fluid

87

EEG

Electroencephalography

88

ICP

Intracranial Pressure

89

LOC

Levels of Consciousness or Loss of Consciousness

90

LP

Lumbar Puncture

91

MS

Multiple Sclerosis

92

OCD

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

93

PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

94

Sz

Seizure

95

TIA

Transient Ischemic Attack.

96

Blephar/o

Eyelid

97

-cusis

Hearing

98

Irid/o

Iris, Color part of eye

99

Kerat/o

Horny, Hard, Cornea

100

Myring/o

Tympanic Membrane, Eardrum

101

Ophthalm/o

Eye, Vision

102

-opia

Vision condition

103

Opt/o

Eye, Vision

104

Ot/o

Ear, Hearing

105

Phak/o

Lens of Eye

106

Presby/o

Old Age

107

Retin/o

Retina, Net

108

Scler/o

Sclera, White of eye, Hard

109

Trop/o

Turn, Change

110

Tympan/o

Tympanic Membrane, Eardrum

111

Adnexa

Stucture outside of the eyeball - includes Orbit, Eye Muscles, Eyelids, Eyelashes, etc.

112

Amblyopia

A dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye

113

Ametropia

Any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina

114

Anisocoria

A condition in which the pupils are unequal in size

115

Astigmatism

A condition in which the eye does not focus properly beause of uneven curvatures in the cornea

116

Barotrauma

Pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when in very high or very low altitudes

117

Blepharoptosis

Dropping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis

118

Cataract

The loss of transparency of the lens that causes a progressive loss of visual clarity

119

Chalazion

A localized swelling inside of the eyelid reulting from obstruction of a sebaceous gland.

120

Cochlear Implant

An implanted electonic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the enviroment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech.

121

Conjunctivitis

Pinkeye - An inflammation of the conjuctiva that is usually cause by an infection or allergy

122

Dacryoadenitis

An inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infection

123

Diplopia

The perception of two images of a single object

124

Ectropion

The eversion of the edge of an eyelid

125

Emmetropia

The normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina

126

Entropion

The inversion of the edge of an eyelid

127

Esotropia

Strabismus characterized by an inward deviation of one or both eyes

128

Eustachitis

Inflammation of the eustachian tube

129

Exotropia

Strabismus characterized by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other

130

Fluorescin Angiography

A radiograpic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium

131

Glaucoma

A group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve

132

Hemianopia

Blindness in one-half of the visual field

133

Hordeolum

A pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in the sebaceous gland.

134

Hyperopia

A defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina

135

Infectious Myringitis

Contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the ear drum

136

Iridectomy

The surgical removal of a portion of the tissue of the iris

137

Iritis

An inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in the front of the eye

138

Keratitis

An inflammation of the cornea

139

Labyrinthectomy

The surgicial removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth

140

Laser Trabeculoplasty

Uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of the eye

141

Mastoidectomy

The surgical removal of mastoid cells

142

Myopia

A defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina

143

Myringotomy

The surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes

144

Nyctalopia

A condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night

145

Nystagmus

An involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use

146

Ophthalmoscopy

The visual examination of the fundus (back part) of the eye with an ophthalmoscope

147

Optometrist

Holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed

148

Otitis Media

Inflammation of the middle of the ear

149

Otomycosis

A fungal infection of the external auditory canal

150

Otopyorrhea

The flow of pus from the ear

151

Otorrhagia

Bleeding from the ear

152

Otosclerosis

The ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in a conductive hearing loss

153

Papilledema

Swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through optic disk

154

Periorbital Edema

Swelling surrounding the eye or eyes

155

Presbycusis

Gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs with age

156

Presbyopia

The condition of common changes in the eyes that occur with aging

157

Pterygium

A benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision

158

Radial Keratotomy

A Surgical procedure to treat myopia

159

Retinopexy

Used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment

160

Scleritis

An inflammation of the sclera

161

Stapedectomy

The surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibration to the inner ear.

162

Strabismus

A disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eyes muscles are unable to focus together

163

Tarsorrhaphy

The partial, or complete, suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids

164

Tinnitus

Ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears.

165

Tonometry

The measurement of intraocular pressure

166

Tympanometry

Use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear

167

Tympanostomy tubes

Tiny ventilating tubes places through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections

168

Vertigo

Sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting

169

Vitrectomy

The removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution

170

Xerophthalmia

Drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva

171

cutane/o

skin

172

derm/o

skin

173

hidr/o

sweat

174

hirsut/o

hairy,rough

175

kerat/o

horny, hard

176

lip/o

fat, lipid

177

melan/o

black, dark

178

myc/o

fungus

179

onych/o

fingernail or toenail

180

pil/i

hair

181

pil/o

hair

182

py/o

pus

183

rhythid/o

wrinkle

184

seb/o

sebum

185

urtic/o

rash, hives

186

xer/o

dry

187

actinic keratosis

is a precancerous skin growth that occurs on sun-damaged skin.

188

albinism

deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eyes.