Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Terminology for Health Professions Part 12 Deck (188):
1

Graves' disease

an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism and is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos

2

growth hormone

"regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues."

3

gynecomastia

the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

4

Hashimoto's disease/thyroiditis

an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

5

hypercalcemia

abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones

6

hyperglycemia

an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood

7

hyperinsulinism

the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream

8

hyperpituitarism

pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the ituitary gland

9

hyperthyroidism

an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones

10

hypoglycemia

an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood

11

hypothyroidism

caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as an underactive thyroid

12

insulin

regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage

13

insulinoma

a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

14

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male

15

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

16

leptin

a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)

17

luteinizing hormone

"in the female, stimulates ovulation; in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion"

18

myxedema

caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism

19

norepinephrine

both a hormone and neurohormone; stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, raises blood pressure, stregnthens the heartbeat and stimulates muscle contractions

20

oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, causes milk to flow from the mammary glands

21

pancreatitis

an inflammation of the pancreas

22

parathyroidectomy

the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

23

pituitary adenoma

a slow-growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland;

24

polydipsia

excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)

25

polyphagia

excessive hunger; increased appetite

26

polyuria

renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine

27

prediabetes

the state in which some but not all of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes are met

28

progesterone

"targets uterus. stimulates menstrual cycle, pregnancy"

29

prolactinoma

a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin

30

puberty

the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually

31

radioactive iodine treatment

the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

32

steroids

hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced to relieve swelling and inflammation

33

testosterone

"secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics"

34

thymectomy

the surgical removal of the thymus gland

35

thymitis

an inflammation of the thymus gland

36

thymosin

stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system

37

thyroxine

hormone produced by the thyroid gland that increases metabolism and regulates growth

38

abortion

the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

39

abruption placentae

an abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus

40

afterbirth

the plancenta expelled after delivery of the newborn

41

amenorrhea

an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months

42

amniocentesis

a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid

43

amnionic fluid

also known as amniotic fluid; the liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements

44

amniotic cavity

the fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac

45

amniotic sac

the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus

46

andropause

referred to as male menopause; is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone

47

anorchism

the absence of one or both testicles

48

anovulation

the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected

49

anteflexion

the normal position of the uterus, where the body of the uterus is bent forward

50

antepartum

refers to the final state of pregnancy just before the onset of labor

51

Apgar score

a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth

52

areola

dark-pigmented area that surrounds the nipple

53

azoospermia

the absence of sperm in the semen

54

bacterial vaginosis

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina

55

balanitis

an inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision

56

Bartholin's glands

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina

57

Braxton Hicks contractions

intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses

58

breast augmentation

mammoplasty performed to increase breast size

59

breast reduction

mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts

60

breech presentation

one in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head

61

bulbourethral glands

located just below the prostrate gland; during sexual arousa, these glands secrete a fluid known as pre-ejaculate

62

caesarean section

the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterinen walls

63

castration

the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

64

cervical cancer

the second-most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 45 and 65 years

65

cervical dysplasia

the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix

66

cervicitis

an inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection

67

cervix

the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina

68

Chlamydia

the most commonly reported STD in the US; is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics

69

chorion

the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo

70

chorionic villus sampling

the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi

71

circumcision

the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

72

clitoris

an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice

73

coitus

sexual intercourse

74

colostrum

a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest

75

colpopexy

the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall

76

colporrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina

77

colporrhexis

tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall

78

colposcopy

the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina

79

conception

occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum

80

conization

the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix

81

contraceptive

a measure taken, or a device used, to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy

82

corpus

the middle portion of the uterus

83

corpus luteum

secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle

84

cryptorchidism

a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum

85

dilation and curettage

a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away; also known as a D&C

86

due date

calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period

87

dysmenorrhea

pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period

88

eclampsia

a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma

89

ectopic pregnancy

a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

90

ejaculatory duct

begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate glands, and empties into the urethra; a reflex action caused by these ducts causes ejaculation

91

embryo

the developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy

92

endocervicitis

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix

93

endometrial biopsy

a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination

94

endometriosis

a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity

95

endometrium

the inner layer of the uterus

96

endovaginal ultrasound

performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding

97

epididymis

a coiled tube at the supper part of each testicle

98

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder

99

episiorrhaphy

the surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy

100

episiotomy

a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal origice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

101

fallopian tubes

tubes which extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary

102

fetal monitoring

the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor

103

fetus

the developing child from the 9th week of pregnancy to the time of birth

104

fibroadenoma

a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast

105

fibrocysticbreast disease

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts

106

fimbriae

the fringed, finger-like extensions of the opening at the end of the fallopian tubes

107

first trimester screening

performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger stick blood test

108

follicle

a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg)

109

foreskin

a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis

110

fraternal twins

result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells

111

fundus

the bulging, rounded part of the uterus above the entrance of the fallopian tubes

112

galactorrhea

the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding

113

genital herpes

an STD caused by the herpex simplex virus type 2

114

genital warts

an STD caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV); highly contagious

115

genitalia

the organs of reproduction and their associated structures

116

gestation

the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus; lasts approximately 280 days

117

glans penis

the head of the penis

118

gonorrhea

a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae

119

gynecologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system

120

hemospermia

the presence of blood in the seminal fluid

121

hormone replacement therapy

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

122

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner

123

hydrocele

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles

124

hymen

a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening before a woman has had intercourse

125

hypermenorrhea

an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days

126

hypomenorrhea

an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period

127

hysterectomy

the surgical removal of the uterus

128

hysterosalpingography

a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes

129

hysteroscopy

the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

130

identical twins

formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos

131

impotence

the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection; also known as erectile dysfunction

132

infertility

the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth

133

infertility specialist

diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy

134

infundibulum

the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary

135

intrauterine device

a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus

136

labia major and labia minora

the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalis and the urethral meatus

137

lactation

the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant

138

lactiferous ducts

milk ducts which carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple

139

leukorrhea

a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina

140

lochia

the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth

141

low sperm count

a sperm count below 20 million/ml; also known as oligospermia

142

mammary glands

the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty

143

mammoplasty

a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts

144

mastalgia

pain in the breast

145

mastitis

a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding

146

mastopexy

mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts ina more elevated position

147

meconium

the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn

148

menarche

the beginning of the menstrual function

149

menometrorrhagia

excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals

150

menopause

the normal termination of the menstrual function

151

menstruation

the normal, periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from the uterus

152

metrorrhea

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

153

mons pubis

a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis

154

multiparous

a woman who has given birth two or more times

155

multiples

the term used to describe a birth involving more than two infants

156

myomectomy

the surgical removal of uterine fibroids

157

myometrium

the muscular middle layer of uterine tissue

158

navel

belly button

159

neonate

newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth

160

neonatologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn

161

nipple

breast milk flows through the nipple

162

normal sperm count

20-120 million or more sperm per millileter of semen

163

nulligravida

a woman who has never been pregnant

164

nullipara

a women who has never borne a viable child

165

obstetrician

a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter

166

oligomenorrhea

the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods

167

oophoritis

inflammation of an ovary

168

orchidectomy

the surgical removal of one or both testicles

169

orchiopexy

endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum

170

ova

the female gametes; also known as eggs

171

ovarian cancer

originates within the walls of the ovaries

172

ovariectomy

the surgical removal of one or both ovaries

173

ovaries

a pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus

174

ovariorrhexis

the rupture of an ovary

175

ovulation

the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary

176

Papanicolaou test

Pap smear; an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer

177

pediatrician

a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children

178

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy

179

pelvimetry

a radiographic study to measure the dimentions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal

180

penis

the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina

181

perimenopause

the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all

182

perimetrium

the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus

183

perineum

the external surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx

184

Peyronie's disease

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection; also known as penile curvature

185

phimosis

a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis

186

placenta

a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix

187

placenta previa

the abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus

188

polycystic ovary syndrome

a condition caused by a hormonal imbalance in which the ovaries are enlarged by the presence of many cysts formed by incompletely developed follicles