What is smelting?
The process of refining the ores to extract pure metals.
When was the cast iron age?
1850 - late 1880s
What was the first building considered to be a skyscraper? Who was it by? And when?
A 10 story home insurance building in Chicago by William Le Baron Jenney in 1885.
What is annealing?
The process of metal being reheated and slowly cooled to obtain a more ductile metal.
Heating metal to a certain temperature and then rapidly cooling it by submersion in water or other liquid is?
Quenching. It strengthens steel.
What are the three general types of metal finishes?
Mechanical finishes, Chemical finishes, and Coatings
Gage sizing is roughly based on _______.
The weight of a square foot of material.
What is galvanic action?
The corrosion resulting when dissimilar metals come in contact with each other in the presence of moisture.
What are the two major classifications of metals and what is the difference?
Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Ferrous metals contain iron and nonferrous don't.
Wrought iron has a very _____ carbon content.
Low- making it soft, ductile, and resistant to corrosion.
Cast Iron has a very _____ carbon content.
High- making is very hard, but brittle.
What are some of the advantages of steel?
High strength, ductility, uniformity of manufacture, variety of shapes and sizes, ease and speed of construction
What are some disadvantages of steel?
Reduction in strength when subjected to fire and its tendency to corrode in the presence of moisture.
How much carbon does standard structural steel contain?
.20% - .50%
What is the most common type of steel for structural use?
What are the primary types of ferrous metals used in construction?
Iron, Steel, Stainless Steel, and other special steel alloys.
What are the primary types of nonferrous metals used in construction?
Aluminum, Copper, and Copper Alloys (Brass & Bronze)
One of the primary disadvantages of ______(type of metal) is the amount of energy required for its refining and manufacture?
What is a Ferrous Alloy?
An alloy that contains iron
What is the Bessemer process?
The procedure where carbon and silicon are removed from iron to make steel
What is Galvanic action?
Also know as electrolysis, is where metals in the presence of moisture exchange ions with one another, causing corrosion.
What are cathodes?
Metals that are less prone to corrosion
what are anodes?
Metals that are more prone to corrosion
What is the scale of metals from Cathode to Anode?
Platinum (Cathode) Gold Silver Titanium Stainless Steel Brass Tungsten Chrome Nickel Copper Cast Iron Steel Lead Tin Aluminium Cadmium Galvanized Steel Zinc Magnesium (Anode) Ions move Upward
What is a Castellated Beam, and in what application would it be used?
A wide flange beam that is produced by cutting the web of the beam in a zig zag pattern and then welding the beam back together. This increases the load carrying capacity of the W beam
What is the connector used to connect two wide flange columns to each other?
Which is more economical for floor plate construction on a 50 story tower when combined with W frame columns, flying forms or concrete poured over metal deck?