Essex Board Measure
This is a table on the back of the body; it gives the contents of any size lumber. The table is located on the steel square used by carpenters.
A person's physical posture and gestures.
An assembly of machines used together to do a particular job.
To warp across the grain
This is the common hammer used by carpenters to drive nails. The claws are used to extract nails that bend or fail to go where they are wanted.
A horizontal strip of 3/4" plywood, particle board, or lumber (usually pine) approx. 3" - 6" wide, nailed flat against the cabinet back at the top & bottom shelf. This supports the cabinet span by stiffening or offering strength to the top & bottom, while also providing a substantial thickness to screw through, when installing the cabinet to the wall.
An exposed or visible back panel of a cabinet (e.g. what a viewer sees while facing the rear elevation of an island cabinet.)
Crisscross Wire Support
This refers to chicken wire that is used to hold insulation in place under the flooring of a house.
Electrical Distribution Panel
Part of the electrical distribution system that brings electricity from the street source (power poles and transformers) though the service lines to the electrical meter mounted on the outside of the building and to the panel inside the building. The panel houses the circuits that distribute electricity throughout the structure.
The traditional name used to describe construction drawings.
A wood chisel is used to cut away wood for making joints. It is sharpened on one end, and the other is hit with the palm of the ahnd or with a hammer to cut away wood for door hinge installation or to fit a joint tightly.
A chair is a support bracked for steel reinforcing rods that holds the rods in place until the concrete has been poured around them.
Mid-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 ft above ground. It is placed halfway between the toeboard and the top rail.
Abbreviation for electrical discharge machines. Computer-controlled machine tools that cut and form parts that cannot be easily fabricated otherwise.
Direct Current (DC)
Electrical current that flows in one diretion, from the negative (2) to the positive (1) terminal of the source, such as a battery.
A person who is capable of identifying exisiting and predictable hazards in the surrounding or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
A work area large enough for a person to work, but arranged in such a way that an employee must physically enter the space to perform work. A confined space has a limited or restriced means of entry and exit. It is not designbed for continous work. Tanks, vessels, silos, pits, vaults, and hoppers are examples of confined spaces.
A drawer assembly (having a front, back, bottom & two sides) which attaches to a separate drawer front.
Enclosed, fenced, covered, or otherwise protected by barriers, rails, covers, or platforms to prevent dangerous contact.
This chisel is made with an edge that can cut metal. It has a one piece configuration, with a head to be hit by a hammer and a cutting edge to be placed against the metal to be cut.
Hazard Communication Standard (HazCom)
The occupational Safety and Health Adminisration standard that required contractors to educated employees about hazardous chemicals on the job site and how to work with them safely.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Equipment or clothing designed to prevent or reduce injuries.
Braces (metal or wood) placed diagnolly from the bottom of one rail to the top of another rail that add support to a structure.
Maximum Allowable Slope
The steepest incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable site conditions as protection against cave-ins, expressed as the ratio of horizational distance to vertical rise.
A very hard material made of carbon and one or more heavy metals. Commonly used in one type of saw blade.
Waste material from welding operations.
A sudden bright light associated with starting up a welding torch.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
An agency of the U.S. Department of Labor. Also refers to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, a law that applies to more than more than 111 million workers and 7 million job sites in the country.
The electrical outlet that is placed inside the structural elements of a building, such as inside the walls. The face of the receptacle is flush with the finished wall surface and covered with a plate.
A continous plastic or metal u-shaped track (mounted vertically on cabinet ends & partitions), having slots or holes to support shelf clips for adjustable shelves.
The surface or amount of space occupied by a two-dimensional object such as a rectangle, circle, or square. To calculate the area for rectangles and squares, multiply the length and width. To calculate the area for circles, multiply the radius squared and pi.
Raised, Panel Door (Five Piece)
A door consisting of two stiles, two rails, and a solid, lumber panel, having a design or detail shaped at the perimeter of the mpanel. (owing to the panel fitting into an interior groove at the stiles & rails, it's perimeter detail suggests that the panel is raised withing the frame.)
Drawings that show the location of the building on the site from an aerial view, including contours, trees, construction features, and dimensions.
Inside walls are often called curtain walls. They do not carry loads from roof or floors above them.
A contractor is a person who contracts with a firm, a bank, or another person to do a job for a certain fee and under certain conditions.
A deck is the part of a roof that covers the rafters
A ladder made of two straight ladders that care connected so that the overall length can be adjusted.
A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide, with a maximum width of 15 feet. Also see excavation.
A nonadjustable ladder.
Privacy of information.
Pull Out Tray
A d rawer type shelf or prefabricated bin which slides out from behind cabinet doors, offering greater accessibility.
Caulk is any type of material to seal walls, windows, and doors to keep out the weather. Caulk is usually made of putty or some type of plastic material, and it is flexible and applied with a caulking gun.
Eye protective equipment worn during welding operations.
Stick & Cope
The male and female details (respectively) which are shaped on stiles and rails in raised, panel construction. The sticking (male detail) is shaped on the entire inside edge of the stile and rail, providing both a groove for the panel and a decorative design or detail at the interior of the frame. The cope (female detail) is shaped only on the ends of the rails (or any mullions), which provides a tenon for the groove and the opposite detail of the sticking. This allows the stiles and rails to be joined together during assembly, despite the lack of a square edge as in common frames.
The upper most, horizontal member of a cabinet box.
Recessed, Panel Door (Five Piece)
A door consisting of two stiles, two rails, and a flat recessed panel.
This is a short stud that fills out the position where the stud would have been located if a window, door, or some other opening had not been there.
Any angle between 0 degree and 90 degrees.
A source of detailed or specific information placed at the end of a section, a chapter, or book.
These are metal strips that prevent damage to drywall corners/
A box that houses electrical switches used to regulate and distribute electricity in a building.
To cut on a slant at an angle that is not a right angle (90 degrees). The angle or inclination of a line or surface that meets another at any angle but 90 degrees.
Chipboard is used as an underlayment. It is constructed of wood chips held together with different types of resins.
A protective screen set up around a welding operation designed to safeguard workers not directly involved in that operation. A shield that provides eye and face protection for welders by either connecting to helmet-like headgear or attaching directly to a hard hat; also called a welding helmet.
ANSI Hand Signals
Communication signals established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used for load navigation for mobile and overhead cranes.
The process by which moisture in the air becomes water or ice on a surface (such as a window whose temperature is colder than the air's temperature.
An interior, vertical, cabinet divider usually extending between the top & bottom shelves of a cabinet.
The vertical member of a faceframe or panel - door frame, extending full length.
Architectual or working drawings used to represent a structure or system.
Transfer of heat through the movement of a liquid or gas.
The interior, vertical member of a faceframe or panel - door frame, extending between a top & bottom rail.
Diagonals are lines used to cut across from adjacent corners to check for squareness in the layout of a basement or foots.
Excavate means to remove. In this case, excavation refers to the removal of dirt to make room for footing, a foundation, or the basement of a building.
Concrete is a mixture of sand, gravel, and cement in water.
A closed curved line around a central point. A cricle measures 360 degrees.
A welding flame that flares up and chars the hose at or near the torch connection. It is caused by improperly mixed fuel.
Measurement found by multiplying a number by itself three times; it describes volume measurement.
A short section of rope or strap, one end in which is attached to a worker's safety hardness and other to a strong anchor point above the work area.
A vertical barrier at the floor level attached along exposed edges of a platform, runway, or ramp to prevent materials and people from falling.
An unassembled cabinet which needs to be assembled at a job site, due to restrictive conditions (e.g. an open shelf cabinet inside a shallow closet, which is wider and higher than the door opening)
Capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point or above 100 degrees F.
A line attached to a tool or object so a worker can pull it up after climbing a ladder a scaffold.
The damage that can be done to eyes after even brief exposure to ultraviolet light from arc welding. A flash burn requires medical attention.
Maximum Intended Load
The total of all people, equipment, tools, materials, and loads that a ladder can hold at one time.
Work done near a hazard but not actually in contact with it.
A class of drugs that induce relaxation.
Energy refers to the oil, gas, or electricity used to heat or cool a house.
To divide into equal parts.
Flush Or Inset Door
A door whch installs completely inside an opening (e.g. faceframe opening, door jamb opening, etc.)
A large, horizontal structural member made of concrete, steel, stone, wood, or other structural material to provide support above a large opening.
Computer Aided Drafting (CAD)
The making of a set of construction drawings with the aid of a computer.
A rectangular groove cut into a board across the grain.
A narrow member of the base at the toe kick of a cabinet which is placed on edge, and extends depth wise between the front and back horizontal base pieces. (The completed base construction offers support for the entire cabinet by strengthening the bottom shelf)
A class of drugs that causes mental stimulation and feelings of euphoria.
The culture created when the whole company sees the value of a safe work enviroment.
A person who, by possesion of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has demonstrated the ability to solve or prevent problems relating to a certain subject, work, or project.
a level paved area or platform next to a building; a patio or veranda.
synonyms: patio, sundeck, platform, porch, stoop, veranda, balcony
"dinner on the terrace"
a block of row houses.
make or form (sloping land) into a number of level flat areas resembling a series of steps.
Any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by removing earth. It can be made for anything from basements to highways.
A cripple jack is a jack rafter with a cut that fits in between a hip and a valley rafter.
A chalk line is used to guide a builder. It is snapped, causing the string to make a chalk mark on the surface being worked on. For Example, the builders can follow it with their shingles.
A qualified, licensed person who creates and designs drawings for a construction project.
A positive offer of advice intended to help someone correct mistakes or improve actions.
The shape made by two straight lines coming together at a point. The space between those two lines is measured in degrees.
A top-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 feet above ground.
A portico (from Italian) is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
A document that must accompany any hazardous substance. The MSDS identifies the substance and gives the exposue limits, the physical and chemical characteristics, the kind of hazard it present, precautions for safe handling and use, and specific control measures.
The cornice is the area under the roof overhand. It is usually enclosed or boxed in
A process that involves respecting others, listening to what is being said, and understanding what is being said.
Experience Modification Rate (EMR)
A rate computation to determine surcharge of credit to workers' compensation premium based on a company's previous accident experience.
The organization of a company's management, including reporting procedures, supervisory responsibility, and administration.
A person who is responsbile for directing a vehicle when the driver's vision is blocked in any way.
Contact cement is the type of glue used in applying countertop finishes. Both side of the materials are coated with the cement, and the cement is allowed to dry. The two surfaces are then placed in contact, and the glue holds immediately.
Abbreviation for computer numerical control. A general term used to describe computer controlled machine tools.
The distance around the curved line that forms a circle.
Block and Tackle
A simple rope-and pulley system used to lift loads.
An interior cabinet shelf which rests on removable shelf chips, rests, or pins. (Shelf clips require adjustable track for support whereas shelf pins instert into pre-drilled holes.)
An exposed or visible side panel of a cabinet.
When people involved in a disagreement make concessions to reach a solution that everyone agrees on.
The conducting connection between electrical equipment or an electrical circuit and the earth.
For a close cut valley, the first course of shingles is laid along the eaves of one roof area up to and over the valley. It is extended along the adjoining roof section. The distance is at least 12 inches. The procedure is followed for the next courses of shingles.
Insulation material made from cellulose fiber. Cellulose is present in wood and paper, for example.
Any horizontal member of a faceframe or panel - door frame. (Note: Rails always fit between stiles or mullions)
The portion of the carpentry trade associated with interior and exterior trim, cabinetry, siding, wall finishes, and decorative work.
A chip or fragment of rock or soil that has broken off from the main mass.
A cripple rafter is not as along as the regular rafter used to span a given area.
A cloth cone open at both ends mounted in a high place to show which direction the wind is blowing.
Capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point below 100 degrees F.
Solid or dashed lines showing the elevation of the earth on a civil drawing.
This type of joint is made with a coping saw. It is especially useful for corners that are not square.
A framework nailed and/or glued to the face of a cabinet, defining the door & drawer openings. (members can be assembled with dowels, mortise & tenons, or with screws from the backside of the frame)
A short exterior wall between two sections of roof that slope in different directions. The term is also used to describe a window that is placed in this type of wall.
a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.
a horizontal paper strip mounted on a wall to give a similar effect.
the part of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice.
A damper is an opening and closing device that will close off the fireplace area from the outside by shutting of the flue. It can also be used to control draft.
A webbed frame which includes a thin center panel of hardboard or plywood to minimize dust between vertical drawers. (The frame is grooved at the interior edges to receive the panel)
A formal procedure for taking equipment out of service and ensuring that it cannot be operated until a qualified person has removed the lockout or tagout device (suck as a lock or warning tag).
Dividers have two points and resemble a compass. They are used to mark off specific measurements or transfer them from a square or a measuring device to the wood to be cut.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
A device that interrupts and denergizes an electrical circuit to protect a person from electocution.
The plywood back panel at the interior of a cabinet. (Usually 1/4" thickness).
A rule stating that platforms or work surfaces with unprotected sides or edges that are six feet or higher than the ground or level below it require fall protection.
A door which installs directly on the face of a cabinet. (with or without a faceframe)
Decorative beams are cut to length from wood or plastic and mounted to the tastes of the owner. They do not support the ceiling.
An elevated platform for workers and materials.
Certificate of Occupancy
This certificate is issued when local inspectors have found a house worthy of human habitation. It allows a contractor to sell a house. It is granted when the building code has been complied with and certain inspections have been made.
The flow of electrical curren through a gas (such as air) from one pole to another pole.
The joining of metal parts by fusion, in which the necessary heat is produced by means of an electric arc.
The temperature at which fuel gives off enough gases (vapors) to burn.
An understanding of how computers work and what they are used for.
Using pieces of timber, usually in a diagonal position, to hold a wall in place temporarily,
A common rafter is a member that extens diagonally from the plate to the ridge.
This is a handsaw used to cut wood across the grain. It has a wooden handle and a flexible steel blade.
A single ringe used to attach multiple slings to a hoist hook.
Cement is a fine powdered limestone that is heated and mixed with other minerals to serve as a binder in concrete mixes.
This saw is designed to cut small thicknesses of wood at any curve or angle desired. The blade is placed in a frame, with the teeth pointing toward the handle.
Gunpowder cartidge used to power powder-actuated fastening tools.
Waste material resulting from cutting using a thermal process.
Access referes to the freedom to move to and around a building, or the ease with which a person can obtain admission to a building site.
A deadbolt lock will respond only to the owner who knows how to operate it. It is designed to keep burglars out.
An interior cabinet shelf which is securedat a specified height. (Usually by means of a dado)
AC (Alternating Current)
An electrical current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals; the current delivered through wall plugs.
The recessed region at the base of a lower cabinet to accomodate toe space (Usually 4" H x 3" D)
Consisten failure to show up for work
Drawings that show the design of the project. Also called architectural drawings.
(Also Skeleton Frame) An open horizontal framework consisting of two stiles & two rails, spanning a cabinet opening between vertical drawers. The frame provides cabinet stability as well as support for each drawer or any bottom mounted drawer guide. (The frame ca be doweled, or motised & tenoned)
The lower most, horizontal member of a cabinet box.
A list of building materials obtained by analyzing the project drawings (also known as material takeoff)
The portion of the carpentry trade associated with framing and other work that will be covered with finish materials.
This is a key designed to allow the contractor access to a house while it is under construction. The lock is changed to fit a pregrooved key when the house is turned over to the owner.
This refers to alternate layers of shingles in roofing.
A device that provides clean filtered air for breathing, no matter what is in the surrounding air.
A substance, such as sandpaper, that is used to wear away material.
Elevation refers to the location of a point in reference to the point established with the builder's level or transit. Elevation indicates how high a point is. It may also refer to the front elevation or front view of a building or the rear elevation or what the building looks like from the rear. Side elevations refer to a side view.
Critical Thinking Skills
The skills required to evaluate and use information to make decision or reach conclusions.
Having pieces of material 2 or more inches thick and 6 or more inches wide used as flooring, decking, or scaffolding.
A crawl space is the area under a floor that is not fully excavated. It is only excavated sufficiently to allow one to crawl under it to get to electrical or plumbing devices.
Any strip of material attached to the surface of another material to strengthen, support, or secure a third material.
A door with 3/8" x 3/8" rabbet at the perimeter which installs partially inside and lips partially outside a faceframe opening. (typical of most kitchens)
A self-supporting ladder consisting of two elements hinged at the top.
The shell or assembled box portion of a cabinet which does not include the faceframe, doors, drawers, or counter top.
A blind or unexposed side panel of a cabinet at an adjacent wall. Does not have to be against the wall.
Permit-required Confined Space
A confined space that has been evaluated and found to have actual or potential hazards, such as a toxic atmosphere or other serious safety or health hazard. Workers need written authorization to enter a permit-required confined space. Also see confined space.
A unit of measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface, equal to one lumen per square foot and originally defined with reference to a standardized candle burning at one foot from a given surface.