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Carpentry & Construction Technology > Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (172):
1

Essex Board Measure

This is a table on the back of the body; it gives the contents of any size lumber. The table is located on the steel square used by carpenters.

2

Body Language

A person's physical posture and gestures.

3

Apparatus

An assembly of machines used together to do a particular job.

4

Cup

To warp across the grain

5

Claw Hammer

This is the common hammer used by carpenters to drive nails. The claws are used to extract nails that bend or fail to go where they are wanted.

6

Wall Cleat

A horizontal strip of 3/4" plywood, particle board, or lumber (usually pine) approx. 3" - 6" wide, nailed flat against the cabinet back at the top & bottom shelf. This supports the cabinet span by stiffening or offering strength to the top & bottom, while also providing a substantial thickness to screw through, when installing the cabinet to the wall.

7

Finished Back

An exposed or visible back panel of a cabinet (e.g. what a viewer sees while facing the rear elevation of an island cabinet.)

8

Crisscross Wire Support

This refers to chicken wire that is used to hold insulation in place under the flooring of a house.

9

Electrical Distribution Panel

Part of the electrical distribution system that brings electricity from the street source (power poles and transformers) though the service lines to the electrical meter mounted on the outside of the building and to the panel inside the building. The panel houses the circuits that distribute electricity throughout the structure.

10

Blueprints

The traditional name used to describe construction drawings.

11

Chisel

A wood chisel is used to cut away wood for making joints. It is sharpened on one end, and the other is hit with the palm of the ahnd or with a hammer to cut away wood for door hinge installation or to fit a joint tightly.

12

Chair

A chair is a support bracked for steel reinforcing rods that holds the rods in place until the concrete has been poured around them.

13

Mid-Rail

Mid-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 ft above ground. It is placed halfway between the toeboard and the top rail.

14

EDM

Abbreviation for electrical discharge machines. Computer-controlled machine tools that cut and form parts that cannot be easily fabricated otherwise.

15

Direct Current (DC)

Electrical current that flows in one diretion, from the negative (2) to the positive (1) terminal of the source, such as a battery.

16

Competent Person

A person who is capable of identifying exisiting and predictable hazards in the surrounding or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

17

Confined Space

A work area large enough for a person to work, but arranged in such a way that an employee must physically enter the space to perform work. A confined space has a limited or restriced means of entry and exit. It is not designbed for continous work. Tanks, vessels, silos, pits, vaults, and hoppers are examples of confined spaces.

18

Drawer Box

A drawer assembly (having a front, back, bottom & two sides) which attaches to a separate drawer front.

19

Guarded

Enclosed, fenced, covered, or otherwise protected by barriers, rails, covers, or platforms to prevent dangerous contact.

20

Cold Chisel

This chisel is made with an edge that can cut metal. It has a one piece configuration, with a head to be hit by a hammer and a cutting edge to be placed against the metal to be cut.

21

Hazard Communication Standard (HazCom)

The occupational Safety and Health Adminisration standard that required contractors to educated employees about hazardous chemicals on the job site and how to work with them safely.

22

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Equipment or clothing designed to prevent or reduce injuries.

23

Cross-bracing

Braces (metal or wood) placed diagnolly from the bottom of one rail to the top of another rail that add support to a structure. 

24

Maximum Allowable Slope

The steepest incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable site conditions as protection against cave-ins, expressed as the ratio of horizational distance to vertical rise.

25

Carbide

A very hard material made of carbon and one or more heavy metals. Commonly used in one type of saw blade.

26

Slag

Waste material from welding operations.

27

Flash

A sudden bright light associated with starting up a welding torch.

28

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

An agency of the U.S. Department of Labor. Also refers to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, a law that applies to more than more than 111 million workers and 7 million job sites in the country.

29

Concealed Receptacle

The electrical outlet that is placed inside the structural elements of a building, such as inside the walls. The face of the receptacle is flush with the finished wall surface and covered with a plate.

30

Adjustable Track

A continous plastic or metal u-shaped track (mounted vertically on cabinet ends & partitions), having slots or holes to support shelf clips for adjustable shelves.

31

Area

The surface or amount of space occupied by a two-dimensional object such as a rectangle, circle, or square. To calculate the area for rectangles and squares, multiply the length and width. To calculate the area for circles, multiply the radius squared and pi.

32

Raised, Panel Door (Five Piece)

A door consisting of two stiles, two rails, and a solid, lumber panel, having a design or detail shaped at the perimeter of the mpanel. (owing to the panel fitting into an interior groove at the stiles & rails, it's perimeter detail suggests that the panel is raised withing the frame.)

33

Civil Plans

Drawings that show the location of the building on the site from an aerial view, including contours, trees, construction features, and dimensions.

34

Curtain Wall

Inside walls are often called curtain walls. They do not carry loads from roof or floors above them.

35

Contractor

A contractor is a person who contracts with a firm, a bank, or another person to do a job for a certain fee and under certain conditions.

36

Deck

A deck is the part of a roof that covers the rafters

37

Extension Ladder

A ladder made of two straight ladders that care connected so that the overall length can be adjusted.

38

Trench

A narrow excavation made below the surface of the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide, with a maximum width of 15 feet. Also see excavation.

39

Straight Ladder

A nonadjustable ladder.

40

Confidentiality

Privacy of information.

41

Pull Out Tray

A d rawer type shelf or prefabricated bin which slides out from behind cabinet doors, offering greater accessibility.

42

Caulk

Caulk is any type of material to seal walls, windows, and doors to keep out the weather. Caulk is usually made of putty or some type of plastic material, and it is flexible and applied with a caulking gun.

43

Flash Goggles

Eye protective equipment worn during welding operations.

44

Stick & Cope

The male and female details (respectively) which are shaped on stiles and rails in raised, panel construction. The sticking (male detail) is shaped on the entire inside edge of the stile and rail, providing both a groove for the panel and a decorative design or detail at the interior of the frame. The cope (female detail) is shaped only on the ends of the rails (or any mullions), which provides a tenon for the groove and the opposite detail of the sticking. This allows the stiles and rails to be joined together during assembly, despite the lack of a square edge as in common frames.

45

Top

The upper most, horizontal member of a cabinet box.

46

Recessed, Panel Door (Five Piece)

A door consisting of two stiles, two rails, and a flat recessed panel.

47

Cripple Stud

This is a short stud that fills out the position where the stud would have been located if a window, door, or some other opening had not been there.

48

Acute Angle

Any angle between 0 degree and 90 degrees.

49

Appendix

A source of detailed or specific information placed at the end of a section, a chapter, or book.

50

Corner Beads

These are metal strips that prevent damage to drywall corners/

51

Switch Enclosure

A box that houses electrical switches used to regulate and distribute electricity in a building.

52

Bevel

To cut on a slant at an angle that is not a right angle (90 degrees). The angle or inclination of a line or surface that meets another at any angle but 90 degrees.

53

Chipboard

Chipboard is used as an underlayment. It is constructed of wood chips held together with different types of resins.

54

Welding Shield

A protective screen set up around a welding operation designed to safeguard workers not directly involved in that operation. A shield that provides eye and face protection for welders by either connecting to helmet-like headgear or attaching directly to a hard hat; also called a welding helmet.

55

ANSI Hand Signals

Communication signals established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and used for load navigation for mobile and overhead cranes.

56

Condensation

The process by which moisture in the air becomes water or ice on a surface (such as a window whose temperature is colder than the air's temperature.

57

Partition

An interior, vertical, cabinet divider usually extending between the top & bottom shelves of a cabinet.

58

Stile

The vertical member of a faceframe or panel - door frame, extending full length.

59

Construction Drawings

Architectual or working drawings used to represent a structure or system.

60

Convection

Transfer of heat through the movement of a liquid or gas.

61

Mullion

The interior, vertical member of a faceframe or panel - door frame, extending between a top & bottom rail.

62

Diagonals

Diagonals are lines used to cut across from adjacent corners to check for squareness in the layout of a basement or foots.

63

Excavation

Excavate means to remove. In this case, excavation refers to the removal of dirt to make room for footing, a foundation, or the basement of a building.

64

Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of sand, gravel, and cement in water.

65

Circle

A closed curved line around a central point. A cricle measures 360 degrees.   

66

Flashback

A welding flame that flares up and chars the hose at or near the torch connection. It is caused by improperly mixed fuel.

67

Cubic

Measurement found by multiplying a number by itself three times; it describes volume measurement.

68

Lanyard

A short section of rope or strap, one end in which is attached to a worker's safety hardness and other to a strong anchor point above the work area.

69

Toeboard

A vertical barrier at the floor level attached along exposed edges of a platform, runway, or ramp to prevent materials and people from falling.

70

Knock Down

An unassembled cabinet which needs to be assembled at a job site, due to restrictive conditions (e.g. an open shelf cabinet inside a shallow closet, which is wider and higher than the door opening)

71

Combustible

Capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point or above 100 degrees F.

72

73

Hand Line

A line attached to a tool or object so a worker can pull it up after climbing a ladder a scaffold.

74

Flash Burn

The damage that can be done to eyes after even brief exposure to ultraviolet light from arc welding. A flash burn requires medical attention.

75

Maximum Intended Load

The total of all people, equipment, tools, materials, and loads that a ladder can hold at one time.

76

Proximity Work

Work done near a hazard but not actually in contact with it.

77

Barbiturate

A class of drugs that induce relaxation.

78

Energy

Energy refers to the oil, gas, or electricity used to heat or cool a house.

79

Bisect

To divide into equal parts.

80

Flush Or Inset Door

A door whch installs completely inside an opening (e.g. faceframe opening, door jamb opening, etc.)

81

Beam

A large, horizontal structural member made of concrete, steel, stone, wood, or other structural material to provide support above a large opening.

82

Computer Aided Drafting (CAD)

The making of a set of construction drawings with the aid of a computer.

83

Dado

A rectangular groove cut into a board across the grain.

84

Sleeper

A narrow member of the base at the toe kick of a cabinet which is placed on edge, and extends depth wise between the front and back horizontal base pieces. (The completed base construction offers support for the entire cabinet by strengthening the bottom shelf)

85

Amphetamine

A class of drugs that causes mental stimulation and feelings of euphoria.

86

Safety Culture

The culture created when the whole company sees the value of a safe work enviroment.

87

Qualified Person

A person who, by possesion of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has demonstrated the ability to solve or prevent problems relating to a certain subject, work, or project.

88

Terrace


ter·race
ˈterəs/
noun

1.
a level paved area or platform next to a building; a patio or veranda.

synonyms: patio, sundeck, platform, porch, stoop, veranda, balcony
"dinner on the terrace"

2.
BRITISH
a block of row houses.

verb

1.
make or form (sloping land) into a number of level flat areas resembling a series of steps.

89

Excavation

Any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth surface, formed by removing earth. It can be made for anything from basements to highways.

90

Cripple Jack

A cripple jack is a jack rafter with a cut that fits in between a hip and a valley rafter.

91

Chalk Line

A chalk line is used to guide a builder. It is snapped, causing the string to make a chalk mark on the surface being worked on. For Example, the builders can follow it with their shingles.

92

Architect

A qualified, licensed person who creates and designs drawings for a construction project.

93

Constructive Criticism

A positive offer of advice intended to help someone correct mistakes or improve actions.

94

Angle

The shape made by two straight lines coming together at a point. The space between those two lines is measured in degrees.

95

Top Rail

A top-level, horizontal board required on all open sides of scaffolding and platforms that are more than 14 inches from the face of the structure and more than 10 feet above ground.

96

Portico

A portico (from Italian) is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures.

97

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

A document that must accompany any hazardous substance. The MSDS identifies the substance and gives the exposue limits, the physical and chemical characteristics, the kind of hazard it present, precautions for safe handling and use, and specific control measures.

98

Cornice

The cornice is the area under the roof overhand. It is usually enclosed or boxed in

99

Active Listening

A process that involves respecting others, listening to what is being said, and understanding what is being said.

100

Experience Modification Rate (EMR)

A rate computation to determine surcharge of credit to workers' compensation premium based on a company's previous accident experience.

101

Management System

The organization of a company's management, including reporting procedures, supervisory responsibility, and administration.

102

Signaler

A person who is responsbile for directing a vehicle when the driver's vision is blocked in any way.

103

Contact Cement

Contact cement is the type of glue used in applying countertop finishes. Both side of the materials are coated with the cement, and the cement is allowed to dry. The two surfaces are then placed in contact, and the glue holds immediately.

104

CNC

Abbreviation for computer numerical control. A general term used to describe computer controlled machine tools.

105

Circumference

The distance around the curved line that forms a circle.

106

Block and Tackle

A simple rope-and pulley system used to lift loads.

 

107

Adjustable Shelf

An interior cabinet shelf which rests on removable shelf chips, rests, or pins. (Shelf clips require adjustable track for support whereas shelf pins instert into pre-drilled holes.)

108

Finished End

An exposed or visible side panel of a cabinet.

109

Compromise

When people involved in a disagreement make concessions to reach a solution that everyone agrees on.

110

Ground

The conducting connection between electrical equipment or an electrical circuit and the earth.

111

Closed-Cut

For a close cut valley, the first course of shingles is laid along the eaves of one roof area up to and over the valley. It is extended along the adjoining roof section. The distance is at least 12 inches. The procedure is followed for the next courses of shingles.

112

Cellulose Fiber

Insulation material made from cellulose fiber. Cellulose is present in wood and paper, for example.

113

Rail

Any horizontal member of a faceframe or panel - door frame. (Note: Rails always fit between stiles or mullions)

114

Finish Carpentry

The portion of the carpentry trade associated with interior and exterior trim, cabinetry, siding, wall finishes, and decorative work.

115

Spall

A chip or fragment of rock or soil that has broken off from the main mass.

116

Cripple Rafter

A cripple rafter is not as along as the regular rafter used to span a given area.

117

Wind Sock

A cloth cone open at both ends mounted in a high place to show which direction the wind is blowing.

118

Flammable

Capable of easily igniting and rapidly burning; used to describe a fuel with a flash point below 100 degrees F.

119

Contour Lines

Solid or dashed lines showing the elevation of the earth on a civil drawing.

120

Coped Joint

This type of joint is made with a coping saw. It is especially useful for corners that are not square.

121

Faceframe

A framework nailed and/or glued to the face of a cabinet, defining the door & drawer openings. (members can be assembled with dowels, mortise & tenons, or with screws from the backside of the frame)

122

Clerestory

A short exterior wall between two sections of roof that slope in different directions. The term is also used to describe a window that is placed in this type of wall.

123

Frieze


frieze1
frēz/
noun

a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.

a horizontal paper strip mounted on a wall to give a similar effect.
ARCHITECTURE
the part of an entablature between the architrave and the cornice.

124

Damper

A damper is an opening and closing device that will close off the fireplace area from the outside by shutting of the flue. It can also be used to control draft.

125

Dust Panel

A webbed frame which includes a thin center panel of hardboard or plywood to minimize dust between vertical drawers. (The frame is grooved at the interior edges to receive the panel)

126

Lockout/Tagout

A formal procedure for taking equipment out of service and ensuring that it cannot be operated until a qualified person has removed the lockout or tagout device (suck as a lock or warning tag).

127

Dividers

Dividers have two points and resemble a compass. They are used to mark off specific measurements or transfer them from a square or a measuring device to the wood to be cut.

128

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter

A device that interrupts and denergizes an electrical circuit to protect a person from electocution.

129

Cabinet Rack

The plywood back panel at the interior of a cabinet. (Usually 1/4" thickness).

130

Six-foot Rule

A rule stating that platforms or work surfaces with unprotected sides or edges that are six feet or higher than the ground or level below it require fall protection.

131

Overlay Door

A door which installs directly on the face of a cabinet. (with or without a faceframe)

132

Decorative Beams

Decorative beams are cut to length from wood or plastic and mounted to the tastes of the owner. They do not support the ceiling.

133

Scaffold

An elevated platform for workers and materials.

134

Certificate of Occupancy

This certificate is issued when local inspectors have found a house worthy of human habitation. It allows a contractor to sell a house. It is granted when the building code has been complied with and certain inspections have been made.

135

Arc

The flow of electrical curren through a gas (such as air) from one pole to another pole.

136

Arc Welding

The joining of metal parts by fusion, in which the necessary heat is produced by means of an electric arc.

137

Flash Point

The temperature at which fuel gives off enough gases (vapors) to burn.

138

Computer Literacy

An understanding of how computers work and what they are used for.

139

Shoring

Using pieces of timber, usually in a diagonal position, to hold a wall in place temporarily,

140

Common Rafter

A common rafter is a member that extens diagonally from the plate to the ridge.

141

Crosscut Saw

This is a handsaw used to cut wood across the grain. It has a wooden handle and a flexible steel blade.

142

Bull Ring

A single ringe used to attach multiple slings to a hoist hook.

143

Cement

Cement is a fine powdered limestone that is heated and mixed with other minerals to serve as a binder in concrete mixes.

144

Coping Saw

This saw is designed to cut small thicknesses of wood at any curve or angle desired. The blade is placed in a frame, with the teeth pointing toward the handle.

145

Booster

Gunpowder cartidge used to power powder-actuated fastening tools.

146

Dross

Waste material resulting from cutting using a thermal process.

147

Access

Access referes to the freedom to move to and around a building, or the ease with which a person can obtain admission to a building site.

148

Deadbolt Lock

A deadbolt lock will respond only to the owner who knows how to operate it. It is designed to keep burglars out.

149

Fixed Shelf

An interior cabinet shelf which is securedat a specified height. (Usually by means of a dado)

150

AC (Alternating Current)

An electrical current that reverses its direction at regularly recurring intervals; the current delivered through wall plugs.

151

Toe Kick

The recessed region at the base of a lower cabinet to accomodate toe space (Usually 4" H x 3" D)

152

Absenteeism

Consisten failure to show up for work

153

Architectural Plans

Drawings that show the design of the project. Also called architectural drawings.

154

Webbed Frame

(Also Skeleton Frame) An open horizontal framework consisting of two stiles & two rails, spanning a cabinet opening between vertical drawers. The frame provides cabinet stability as well as support for each drawer or any bottom mounted drawer guide. (The frame ca be doweled, or motised & tenoned)

155

Bottom

The lower most, horizontal member of a cabinet box.

156

Takeoff

A list of building materials obtained by analyzing the project drawings (also known as material takeoff)

157

Rough Carpentry

The portion of the carpentry trade associated with framing and other work that will be covered with finish materials.

158

Contractor's Key

This is a key designed to allow the contractor access to a house while it is under construction. The lock is changed to fit a pregrooved key when the house is turned over to the owner.

159

Course

This refers to alternate layers of shingles in roofing.

160

Respirator

A device that provides clean filtered air for breathing, no matter what is in the surrounding air.

161

Abrasive

A substance, such as sandpaper, that is used to wear away material.

162

Elevation

Elevation refers to the location of a point in reference to the point established with the builder's level or transit. Elevation indicates how high a point is. It may also refer to the front elevation or front view of a building or the rear elevation or what the building looks like from the rear. Side elevations refer to a side view.

163

Critical Thinking Skills

The skills required to evaluate and use information to make decision or reach conclusions.

164

Planked

Having pieces of material 2 or more inches thick and 6 or more inches wide used as flooring, decking, or scaffolding.

165

Crawl Space

A crawl space is the area under a floor that is not fully excavated. It is only excavated sufficiently to allow one to crawl under it to get to electrical or plumbing devices.

166

Cleat

Any strip of material attached to the surface of another material to strengthen, support, or secure a third material.

167

Lipped Door

A door with 3/8" x 3/8" rabbet at the perimeter which installs partially inside and lips partially outside a faceframe opening. (typical of most kitchens)

168

Stepladder

A self-supporting ladder consisting of two elements hinged at the top.

169

Carcass

The shell or assembled box portion of a cabinet which does not include the faceframe, doors, drawers, or counter top.

170

Wall End

A blind or unexposed side panel of a cabinet at an adjacent wall. Does not have to be against the wall.

171

Permit-required Confined Space

A confined space that has been evaluated and found to have actual or potential hazards, such as a toxic atmosphere or other serious safety or health hazard. Workers need written authorization to enter a permit-required confined space. Also see confined space.

172

Foot-candle

A unit of measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface, equal to one lumen per square foot and originally defined with reference to a standardized candle burning at one foot from a given surface.