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Flashcards in Micro 0 Deck (102)
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1

A patient with tinnitus, dizziness, headaches, and GI distress. What drug is causing these symptoms?

This patient presents with Cinchonism: Caused by quinine or quinidine.

2

What testicular tumor describes composed of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts?

Choriocarcinoma.

3

What testicular tumor may present with initially with gynecomastia?

Leydig cell tumor.
Rarely a Sertoli tumor.

4

What testicular tumor describes with elevated AFP?

Yolk sac tumor.

5

What testicular tumor describes elevated beta-hCG?

1. Choriocarcinoma
2. Embryonal carcinoma

6

What testicular tumor describes histological appearance similar to koilocytes (cytoplasmic clearing)?

Seminoma

7

Which medication overdose can be treated with sodium bicarbonate?

Bicarbonate alkalinizes urine, trapping weak acids. It is used to treat overdoses with weak acids such as aspirin.

8

What substances do cytotoxic T cells and NK cells use to induce apoptosis in the cells infected with virus?

Perforin and granzymes.

9

What highly damaging events can cause irreversible cell injury?

1. Calcium influx
2. Damage to the plasma membrane
3. Rupture of the lysosomes
4. Mitochondria permeability
5. Damage to the nucleus.

10

What ovarian tumor is lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium?

Serous cystadenoma

11

What ovarian tumor is associated with ovarian tumor + ascites + hydrothorax?

Meigs syndrome of ovarian fibroma

12

What ovarian tumor is associated with multiple different tissue types?

Teratoma

13

What ovarian tumor is associated with elevated beta-hCG?

Choriocarcinoma, dysgerminoma

14

What ovarian tumor resembles bladder epithelium?

Brenner tumor.

15

What is the most common cause of DIC?

"STOP Making Thrombi"
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Transfusion

16

What is the most common cause of Heart murmur?

Mitral valve prolapse.

17

What is the most common cause of coronary artery involved in thrombosis?

Left anterior descending (LAD).

18

What is the most common cause of death in lupus patients?

Renal failure from lupus nephropathy.

19

What is the most common congenital heart anomaly?

Ventricular septal defect (VSD).

20

What are the clinical presentations of Addison disease?

Increased skin pigmentation.
Hypotension.
Weakness.
Malaise.
Anorexia.
Weight loss.

21

What is the cause of Addison disease?

Autoimmune disease that attacks adrenal glands. It causes adrenal atrophy causing decreased aldosterone and cortisol.

22

What is the classical presentation of a brachial cleft cyst?

Neck mass that lies laterally along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
It does not move with swallowing.

23

What pathology is associated with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy?

Sarcoidosis. Also see noncasiating granulomas.

24

What pathology is associated with cherry-red spot on the macula?

1. Tay-Sachs
2. Niemann-Pick
3. Central retinal artery occlusion

25

What pathology is associated with slapped-cheek rash on child?

Parvovirus B19.

26

What organism is associated with dog or cat bite?

Pasteurella multocida

27

What pathology is associated with facial muscle spasm upon tapping the cheek?

Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia).

28

What pathology is associated with cough, conjunctivitis, coryza?

Measles (the big three C's).

29

What pathology is associated with nephritis, hearing loss and cataracts?

Alport syndrome.

30

What regulates prolactin secretion from the pituitary?

TRH increases prolactin secretion.
Dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion.
Prolaction inhibits prolactin release by increasing dopamine secretion.