Flashcards in Micro 25 - HIV Drugs Deck (47)
When should HAART start?
Initiation: everyone with HIV regardless of CD4 count; definitely in anyone with a CD4 count less than 200.
What are some protease inhibitors?
All end in "navir"
How do protease inhibitors work?
Protease takes polypeptides that were translated from the HIV mRNA and chops them into individual functioning proteins in order to allow new infectious virus to form. So these drugs prevent development of new viruses by halting the replicative process.
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes GI intolerance?
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes inhibit cytochrome P450?
Protease inhibitors, especially ritonavir. Used to increase the concentration of other HIV drugs.
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes hyperlipidemia/hypertryglyceridemia?
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes lipodystrophy?
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes pancreatitis?
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes nephrolithiasis?
Which type of HIV Drug or class causes increased bilirubin?
What is HAART?
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Combination of at least 3 different HIV medications to avoid resistance. Usually combines 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase with 1 from a different class of med.
What are NRTIs.
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: They inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase, preventing the virus from replicating. They are all nucleoside analogs (guanicine analogs or cytocine analogs): when the virus needs a guanicine or cytocine, it grabs a NRTI, binding right into the reverse transcriptase functional side (called competitive inhibition), shutting it down. So NRTIs are competitive inhibitors for reverse trancriptase and musr be phosphorylated or activated by thymidine kinase in order to work.
What are some NRTIs?
What is AZT and what are its use recomendation?
It Zidovudine and it is a NRTIs. It is used mainly in newborns born to HIV (+) mother, given to the mother at the time of delivery if she hasn't been following her anti HIV regiment; if she has, then does not need to take AZT.
What is the treatment of occupational exposure to AIDS?
A 3 drug regiment for 4 weeks.
Which NRTI causes Bone marrow suppression?
Most of them but especially Zidovudine.
Which NRTI causes pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy?
Didanosine, Zalcitabine, stavudine.
Which NRTI causes hepatic steatosis?
Which NRTI causes hypersensitivity reaction?
What are some Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)?
How do NNRTIs work?
Non-competitively inhibit reverse transcriptase. They do not require phosphorylation to be active (doesn't required thymodine kinase).
What HIV/AIDS drug causes rash?
What HIV/AIDS causes Neuropsychiatric symptoms (nigthmares, vivid dreams, dizziness, worsening depression)?
What HIV/AIDS causes false-positive drug test to cannabinoids?
What HIV/AIDS causes teratogenic effects?
What is Enfuvirtide and what does it do? And what is the catch of this drug?
A fusion inhibitor. Binds to gp41, inhibiting the virus from fusing to the host cell. Can only be given by injection and costs a lot, given in drug resistant AIDS.
What are Elvitegravir and Raltegravir and what does they do?
It is an integrase inhibitor in HIV. Raltegravir can cause nausea, rash and myopathy.
What does Maraviroc do and what is the catch?
CCR5 antagonist (macrophages have a lot of these receptors). It inhibits gp120 conformational change so virus cannot bind host cell effectively. Patients must go through a trophism test to see that the patient has an CCR5 virus and not an CXR4 virus: this drug can only be used in patients with all R5 virus.
What is Ritonavir?