Micro 16 - Other Antibiotics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro 16 - Other Antibiotics Deck (37):
1

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in Meningococcal meningitis?

Ciprofloxacin, Rifampin, Ceftriaxone.

2

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in H. Influenzae meningitis?

Rifampin.

3

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in Gonorrhea?

Ceftriaxone.

4

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in Syphilis?

Benzathine Penicillin G.

5

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in History of recurrent UTIs?

TMP-SMX, Nitrofurantoin, Amoxicillin, Cephalexin.

6

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in Pneumocystis jiroveci?

TMP-SMX, if sulfa allergic, use aerosolized pentamidine, dapsone.

7

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in endocarditis in patients which damaged valves or mechanical ones?

Penicillin, Amino-penicillins, Cephalexin.

8

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in pregnant woman with GBS?

Ampicillin (during labor).

9

What antimicrobial prophylaxis can be used in gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis in newborn?

Erythromycin ointment.

10

What are antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy?

Clarithromycin (embryotoxic), Sulfonamides (kernicterus), Aminoglycoside (Otoxicity), Fluoroquinolones (Cartilage damage), Metronidazole (Mutagenesis), Tetracylines (Discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth), Ribavirin (Teratogenic), Griseofulvin (Teratogenic).

11

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Sulfonamides?

MOA: Inhibit dihydropterate synthetase. CU: G(+/-). AE: UTIs, GI infections, PCP. AE: Hypersensitivity, Kernicterus (late pregnancy), hemolysis, Steven-Johnson syndrome.

12

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Trimethoprim?

MOA: Inihibit dihydrofolate reductase. CU: UTIs, GIs. AE: Anemia.

13

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Nitrofurantoin?

MOA: Bacterial ribosomes, vague. CU: UTIs (can be used in Preg). AE: GI symptoms.

14

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Fluoroquinolones?

MOA: Topoisomerase II. CU: G(-/+). UTIs, GIs, URI. AE: GIs, Cartilage, tendon dmg.

15

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Metronidazole?

MOA: Toxic free radicals. CU: [GeT GAP on the Metro] Giardia, Trich, Gard, Anaerobes, H.pylori. AE: Disulfiram.

16

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Penicilin?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: G(+), Syphilis. AE: Hypersen.

17

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Methicillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: Staph aureus. AE: Hypersen.

18

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Ampicillin, Amoxicilin.

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: G(+), [HEELPSS]: H.influenzae, E.coli,Enterococci,Listeria,Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella,Shigella. AE: Hypersens.

19

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Ticarcillin, Carbenicillin, Piperacillin?

MOA: Bind PBP, CU: G(+/-), Pseudomonas. AE: Hypersens.

20

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Polymyxins.

MOA: Cationic detergent, cell membranes. CU: G(-). AE: Nephro, Neuro.

21

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of 1st gen Cephalosporins?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: G(+), [PEcK] Proteus mirabilis,E.coli,Klebsiella. AE: Hypersens, Nephrotox when used w/ aminoglycosides.

22

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of 2nd gen Cephalosporins?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: Less G(-), [HEN PEcK]: H.influenzae,Enterobacter,Neiserria,Serratia marcens. AE: Hypersens, Nephrotox when used w/ aminoglyco.

23

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of 3rd gen cephalosporins?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: Strep pneumo, Serious G(-), ceftazidime can be used for pseudomonas. AE: Hypersens, Nephrotox w/ aminoglyco.

24

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of 4th gen Cephalosporins (cefepime)?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: Broad spec, Pseudomonas. AE: Hypersens, Nephrotox w/ aminoglyco.

25

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Aztreonam?

MOA: Bind PBP-3. CU: G(-) only. AE: Nontoxic.

26

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Carbopenems: Imipenem-cilastatin, Meropenem?

MOA: Bind PBP. CU: Broad spec, Pseudomonas. AE: GI, neurotox, Skin rash.

27

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Vancomycin.

MOA: Bind D-ala, D-ala. CU: MRSA, enterococci. AE: [NOT] Nephro Oto Tox, Thrombophlebitis.

28

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Linezolid?

MOA: Bind 23s portion of 50s. CU: MRSA, VRE. AE: GIs, thrombocyto.

29

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of tetracyclines?

MOA: Bind 30s. CU: [VACUUM The Bed Room] Vibrio cholera,Acne,Chlamydia,Ureoplasma Urolyticum,Mycoplasma pneumoniae,Tuleremia,H.pylori,Borrelia burgdorferi,Rickettsia. AE: GIs, Tooth discolor, Inhib bone growth, photosensitivity.

30

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of aminoglycosides?

MOA: Bind 30s. CU: Severe G(-). AE: [NOT] Nephro Oto tox, Teratogenic.

31

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of macrolides?

MOA: Bind 23s of 50s. CU: [PUS] Pneumonia, URIs, STDs. AE: Prolonging QT interval.

32

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Chloramphenicol?

MOA: Bind 50s. CU: meningitis. AE: Anemia, Gray baby.

33

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Clindamycin?

MOA: bind 50s. CU: Anaerobic infection, MRSA (skin). AE: Pseudomembranous Colitis.

34

What is the Mechanism of action (MOA), Clinical use (CU), and adverse effect (AE) of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin?

MOA: Bind 23s of 50s. CU: MRSA, VRE. AE: Hepatotox, althralgia, myalgias.

35

What is the drug of choice of anthrax infection?

Ciprofloxacin.

36

What drugs are effective against Pseudomonas?

Fluoroquinolones, extended spectrum penicillins, 3rd gen cephalosporins, cefepim, Aztreonam, aminoglycosides, polymixins.

37

What is the mechanism of action of Polymyxins and its applications?

They are cationic detergents. Given in IV, they are last resort for resistant G(-) infections. Topically, they are used in many OTC antibiotic ointments. Toxicity includes neuron and renal damage.