Flashcards in Micro 7 - Diarrhea Deck (46)
What does Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)cause?
Bloody diarrhea and severe illness. It produces shiga-like toxin. Can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS); anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure.
What is the treatment for Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)?
What type of food is most commonly infected with enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)?
From infected meat.
What is the most common serotype of Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)?
What does Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) cause?
Watery diarrhea due to heat-labile and heat stable enterotoxins. Does not infect the intestinal wall and is the most common type of traveler's diarrhea.
What does Enteropathic E.coli (EPEC) cause?
Produces watery diarrhea, but no toxin produced; the bacteria adhere to the apical surface and flatten the villi, preventing absorption. It is common in children.
What does Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC) cause?
Bloody diarrhea and fever die to intestinal wall invasion.
To what other bacteria is Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC) related to?
What is the treatment for Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)?
Flouroquinolones, TMP-SMX, azithromycin.
What does Shigella cause and why?
It causes watery diarrhea that turns to bloody diarrhea because it invades the intestinal mucosa, causing inflammation and necrosis.
How is Shigella transmitted? How many of these bacteria are needed to cause disease?
Can spread from person to person contact and contaminated food and water. It is very virulent, only needs 10 of these to cause symptoms.
What is the structural difference between Shigella and salmonella?
Shigella does not have flagella.
How long does Shigella infection last?
From one to two weeks.
Which type of Shigella is associated with Reiter syndrome?
What does Salmonella cause?
Bloody diarrhea and fever. It is a non-lactose fermenter (like Shigella). The diarrhea begins 1 to 3 days later.
What foods are associated with Salmonella infections?
Egg salads and poultry.
What settings is associated with Salmonella other than foods?
Pet stores, especially turtles.
What can salmonella cause in sickle cell patients?
Osteomyelitis because the salmonella has flagella.
What type of reactive arthritis can salmonella cause?
What are "rose spots" on the abdomen indicate?
Typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi).
What are four special traits of Campylobacter jejuni?
G(-), Z-shaped, Oxidase positive, and grows in 40C.
What does Campylobacter jejuni cause?
Causes bloody diarrhea, especially in children.
What syndrome is associated with Campulobacter jejuni?
What does Vibrio cholerae cause and why?
Watery diarrhea, "rice-water"; it permanently activates cAMP.
What is the treatment for Vibrio cholerae?
Aggressive oral rehydration.
What does Yersinia enterocolitica cause?
Bloody diarrhea and mesenteric adenitis (Can mimic appendicitis).
What does Klebsiella pneumoniae cause?
Normal intestinal flora, but can cause lobar pneumonia when aspirated, especially in people with weakened immune systems. This causes red currant jelly sputum, and necrosis in the lungs. Is a major cause of UTIs.
What does Toxin A of Clostridium difficile do?
Toxin A (AKA enterotoxin), Binds to the brush border of the gut, leads to intestinal fluid secretion and inflammation.
What does Toxin B of Clostridium difficile do?
Toxin B (AKA cytotoxin) causes death of enterocytes by targeting its cytoskeleton. This results in pseudomembranous colitis; necrosis with exudates, fibrin, and leukocytes.