Flashcards in Micro 22 - RNA Viruses Part 1 Deck (29)
What does Rotavirus cause?
Primary cause of fatal diarrhea in children worldwide under the age of 5. Causes severe diarrhea and vomiting leading to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities.
What time of the year are rotavirus outbreaks the most common?
During the winter months, often seen in daycare centers and playgrounds.
What does Coltivirus cause?
Colorado tick fever. Spread by woodtick, causes acute, self-limited flu-like illness. Found in mountainous regions of western US and Canada.
What is the subfamily of virus that is part of the Picornaviruses?
Rhinovirus. Enterovirus that can be further divided into four important smaller groups: poliovirus, coxsackievirus, hepatitis A, and echovirus.
What is the pathophysiology of Poliovirus?
Infects gray matter of anterior horn of spinal cord and motor neurons of pons and medulla, causing paralysis.
What is the difference between the polio vaccines Salk and Sabin vaccine?
Salk Vaccine is Injected and killed. Sabin vaccine is oral and live.
What does Echovirus cause? What time of the year is it mostly likely to strike?
Causes aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and URIs. Likes to strike during summer.
What does Coxsackievirus cause?
Aseptic meningitis, Myocarditis, Herpangina, Hand-foot-mouth disease, Febrile pharyngitis.
What are the four disease that can cause rash on palms and soles?
Hand-foot-mouth disease (coxsackievirus), Meningococcus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Syphilis.
What are the two viruses that cause "The Common cold"?
Rhinovirus and Coronavirus.
What important virus are part of the Caliciviruses?
What does Norwalk virus cause?
Viral gastroenteritis: vomiting and diarrhea.
In what settings does Norwalk appear?
Winter and on cruise ships and nursing homes.
What five diseases belong to the Flaviviruses?
Hepatitis C, Yellow fever, Dengue fever, West Nile Virus, St.Louis Encephalitis.
How is Yellow fever virus spread? What parts of the world is it most common?
Transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Found in sub-Saharan Africa and South America.
What are the symptoms of Yellow fever?
High fever, Hemorrhagic fever (Hemoptisis, gum bleeding, petechie, black vomit), Jaundice.
What are the 2 presentations of Dengue fever?
Classic dengue fever (Break Bone Fever): muscle/joint pain, headache, retro-orbital pain. Hemorrhagic fever: developed less than 20% of dengue patients.
What is the Tourniquet Test?
A WHO field test for hemorrhagic dengue fever: Blood pressure is inflated to a point between SBP and DBP. If excess petechiae: Increased capillary wall fragility and thrombocytopenia.
How is West Nile virus transmitted?
Birds are the reservoir, and mosquitoes are the vectors. Humans, horses and dogs are incidental hosts. Human viremia is so low that it cannot infect another human with a mosquito intermediate.
What are the symptoms of West Nile Virus?
Usually only headache, malaise, back pain, myalgia and anorexia for 3-6 days. Severe symptoms in 1/150: meningitis and/or encephalitis including muscle weakness and flaccid paralysis (via anterior-horn involvement), alterations in consciousness, possibly death.
How is West Nile Virus diagnosed?
PCR (Not FDA approved) or Serology for IgM anti-WNV antibodies.
What are the 4 arboviruses that cause encephalitis?
St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, California encephalitis virus. Arbo: carried by arthropod vector.
What a member of the Togavirus?
Rubella (German measels).
What are the symptoms of Congenital rubella syndrome?
Cardiac defects (Patent ductus arteriosus, Pulmonic stenosis), Cataracts and Deafness.
What are two Retroviruses?
HIV, Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV).
What virus would cause fever, jaundice and black vomit?
What viruses might cause meningitis in summer months?
Echovirus, coxsackievirus, other enteroviruses.
What virus infects motor neurons of the anterior horn?
Poliovirus and West Nile virus.