Flashcards in Micro 9 - Spirochetes And Zoonotics Deck (47)
What are the symptoms of Leptospirosis?
First is fever, mialgia, chills, headache. Then there is a brief asymptomatic phase before the second phase that brings meningitis, liver damage, and renal failure.
What is Weil's disease?
The most severe form of leptospirosis, it is when patients with said disease manifest ictero-hemorrhagic leptospirosis.
What causes Lyme disease?
What are the characteristics of stage 1 of Lyme disease?
Fever, fatigue, headache, depression. This comes from a few days to a month after the tick bite. The most characteristic finding of this stage is the Erythema migrans, a bulls eye rash (not always shows up).
What are the characteristics of stage 2 Lyme disease?
Happens weeks or months after tick bite, consists of neurologic and cardiac manifestations; Bilateral Bell's palsy (very few cause this bilaterally) and AV nodal block, and with or without myopericarditis.
What are the characteristics of Stage 3 Lyme disease?
Occurs years after tick bite, causes chronic monoarthritis (usually a knee), migratory polyarthritis, subacute encephalitis.
What is the treatment for Stage 1 or 2 Lyme disease?
Doxycycline. Amoxicillin for children. For 10-14 days.
What is the treatment for stage 3 Lyme disease?
Ceftriaxone IV for 28 days.
What is the characteristic of Primary syphilis?
A single painless chancre.
What is the characteristic of Secondary syphilis?
Patients will have a non specific symptoms like fever, malaise, chills, and maculopapular rash in the trunks and extremities (including palms and soles), and sometimes condyloma lata in the mouth and perineum. Sometimes alopecia areata.
What diseases cause rash that does not spare the soles and palms?
[You drive Kawasaki CA.R.S. with your hands and feet].
Kawasaki, CA (Coxsackie A), R (Rocky mountain spotted fever), S (Secondary Syphilis).
What are the characteristics of Tertiary Syphilis?
Gumma (soft, non-cancerous growth with a firm, necrotic center surrounded by inflamed tissue, which forms an amorphous proteinaceous mass). Can grow anywhere in the body but mostly on liver. Can grow in ascending aorta (causing aortitis,"tree-barking by vaso vasorum [microscopic blood supply] destruction). Also causes Tabes dorsalis, Argyll-Robertson pupil, Charcot's joints.
What is Tabes dorsalis?
AKA syphilitic myelopathy, a slowly demyelination of the nerves of the dorsal columns and dorsal roots. Causes sensory ataxia, sudden severe stabs of pain and broad-based ataxia and positive Rhomberg sign. Seen in tertiary syphilis.
What is Argyll-Robertson pupil?
The pupil constricts to accommodation but not to direct light in tertiary syphilis.
What is Charcot's joints?
Joints get damaged because you don't know where your joint is in space because of all these neurological problems. Seen in Tertiary syphilis and diabetic neuropathy.
What are the characteristics of late congenital syphilis?
Saber shins (anterior bowing of the tibia), saddle nose (bulging of the frontal nose), Hutchinson teeth (notching of the upper incisors, frontal bossing.
What are the characteristics of Early Congenital syphilis?
Snuffles (blood-tinged nasal secretions).
How do we diagnose Syphilis?
VDRL/RPR: Venereal disease research lab/rapid plasma reagent Which detects treponemal antibodies in the serum. Both can produce false positives, so if it is positive, it is followed by FTA-ABS which is far more specific for Treponema pallidum.
What is the treatment for Primary syphilis?
Penicillin G (that is the IV form). If allergic, use doxycycline.
What are things that can cause VDRL false positives?
The test can react to nonspecific antibodies that reacts with B-cardiolipid.
Virus (mononucleosis, EBV), Drugs (that cause SLE-like symptoms), Rheumatic fever, Lupus and Leprosy.
What does the Bartonella bacteria cause?
Cat-scratch fever; regional lymph adenopathy, usually self limited. Can bacillary angiomatosis, similar to Kaposi sarcoma in immunocompromised patients. Transmission is from cats to humans.
What does Borrelia burgdorferi cause?
Lyme disease through the Ixodes tick.
What does Borrelia recurrentis cause?
Recurrent fever from ticks and lice.
What does Brucella spp. Cause?
Brucellosis and undulant fever.
What does Chlamydophila psittaci cause?
Causes psittacosis, causing severe pneumonia. Caused by contact with parrots and other birds.
What does Coxiella burnetti cause?
Q fever; flu-like symptoms, abrupt fever, perfused perspiration for 1-2 weeks. Caused by ticks and camel placenta.
What does Ehrlichia chaffeensis cause?
Causes Ehrlicosis; headache, mialgia and fatigue. Can progress to blunting of the immune system, leading to opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Spread by Lone star tick.
What does Francisella tularensis cause?
Causes tulerimia; tick bites and rabbits. Can be used as biological warfare.
What does Pasteurella multocida cause?
Causes cellulitis and osteomyelitis from animal bites (cats and dogs).