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Flashcards in Micro 11 - Nonstaining Bacteria Deck (27):
1

What is the treatment for Bacterial vaginosis?

Metronidazole cream or oral.

2

What bacterias cause bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis, mobiluncus, Bacteroides, Mycoplasma.

3

Why are Ricjettsiae organisms hard to stain?

Because they are obligate intracellular organisms.

4

What is the Rickettsial triad that all Rickettsial spp. Cause?

Headache, fever, rash. Except Ehrlichiosis and Q fever (no rash).

5

What is the treatment for Rickettsiae spp.?

Doxycycline.

6

Which bacteria causes Endemic typhus and which one causes Epidemic typhus?

Endemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia typhi by rat fleas. Epidemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii by human body lice.

7

What is the difference between endemic an epidemic?

Endemic: Exists in the population. Epidemic: Very sudden onset in the population.

8

What is the difference of the rash seen in R.rickettsii and R.typhi and R.prowazekii?

The rash from R.rickettsii starts on hands and feet and moves inward. R.typhi and R.prowazekii start centrally and spread outward and do not affect soles and palms.

9

What are the symptoms of Q fever and how is it spread?

Caused by Coxiella burnetii. It causes fever and interstitial pneumonia. It is spread by inhaled aerosols, tick feces and cow placenta spores (it is a spore-former).

10

What is the Weil-Feliz reaction?

Rickettsial infections have antibodies against Rickettsia. Anti-rickettsial antibodies cross-react and agglutinate, causing a positive Weil-Felix reaction.

11

What is would the Weil-Felix reaction be in a Coxiella infection?

Negative.

12

What does Chlamydophila pneumoniae cause?

Atypical pneumonia. It is transmitted by aerosols.

13

What are the three organisms that cause atypical pneumonia?

Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

14

What is the treatment for Chlamydophila pneumoniae?

Doxycycline as first treatment. If not sure, then use azithromycin.

15

What does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?

Reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritis, PID.

16

What are the serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis and what do they cause?

Types A,B,C cause chronic eye infection called Trachoma which can lead to blindness (prevalent only in Africa). Types D to K, causing urethritis, PID, Ectopic pregnancy (from scarring of the fallopian tubes), neonatal penumonia and conjunctivitis (from passage of the birth canal). Often subclinical. Types L1, L2, L3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum; acute lymphadenitis, starts with ulcer and inguinal lymphadenitis fro 2-6 weeks. Can cause rectal disease, (may be mistaken for IBD).

17

Why can we not stain Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Because it does not have cell wall.

18

Which is the only bacteria that contains cholesterol?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

19

What does mycoplasma pneumoniae cause?

Causes Atypical (interstitial) pneumonia AKA walking pneumonia (insidious onset: headache, nonproductive cough, diffuse interstitial infiltrate). It is subclinical. CXR looks worse than the patient. Causes High titer of cold agglutinins (IgM antibodies that agglutinate or lyse RBCs only in cold environments).

20

What is the treatment for mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Macrolides (like azithromycin).

21

Who are more likely to be infected by mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Patients younger than 30, frequent outbreaks in military recruits and prisons.

22

A young adult patient w/ Mycoplasma atypical pneumonia exhibits anemia due to cryoagglutinins. What type of immunoglobulins are responsible for the anemia?

IgM antibodies.

23

A homeless, alcoholic patient vomited while intoxicated and subsequently developed foul-smelling sputum. What organism is most likely causing his infection?

Klebsiella pneumoniae.

24

Which antibiotic should be used for Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

Tetracycline or macrolides (azithromycin).

25

Which antibiotic should be used for Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?

Doxycycline.

26

Which antibiotic should be used for bacterial vaginosis?

Metronidazole.

27

What does Gardnerella vaginalis cause?

Causes Bacterial vaginosis: gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell. Causes Clue cells (vaginal squamous epithelium covered in bacteria.)