Micro Drugs Flashcards Preview

Elliot Step 1 > Micro Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Drugs Deck (179):
1

Fluoroquinolones MOA?

Block DNA topoisomerase

2

Patient with strep is allergic to pencillin; What do you treat her with?

Macrolides

4

Inhibits dehydropteroate synthase?

Sulfonamides

5

Obstructed crystalline nephropathy?

Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, famciclovir

6

MOA of fluoroquinolones?

Inhibit DNA gyrase

7

Metronidazole treats?

GET GAP on the Metro: Giardia; Entamoeba, Trichimonas; Garnderalla; Anaerobes (Cdiff and bacteroides); Hpylori (along with proton pump inhibitor; and clarithromycin)

8

Used for history of recurrent UTIs

TMP SMX

11

Endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures?

Penicillins

12

Trypansoma brucei? What is trypansoma brucei?

suramin and melarsoprol; African sleeping sickness

13

4 main uses of tetracycline?

Borrelia; M. pneumoniae; Very effective against Chlamydia and Rickettsia for its ability to accumulate intracellularly

14

Pregnant woman with group B strep?

Ampicillin (may cause pseudomembranous colitis)

15

Prevention of gonoccocal or chlamydial conjunctivitis in newborn?

Erythromycin ointment

16

Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerase?

Rifampin

17

All drugs that end in "navir?"

Protease inhibitors

18

Drug used for Staph Aureus?

Nafcillin (use Naf for Staph); Oxacillin, dicloxacillin

18

NRTI that is a nucleoTide and therefore does not need to be activated?

Tenofovir

19

Inhibits D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall precursors?

Vancomycin

19

This molecule converts Flucytosine to 5 FU

cystosine deaminase

19

Protein synthesis inhibitor that requires O2 for uptake?

Aminoglycosides

20

Patient presents with gynecomastia and liver dysfunction 1 week after starting a medication to treat his coccioides infection.

Azoles! cause gynecomastia

21

Damages DNA?

Metronidazole

21

Trimethoprim MOA?

Inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reducatase

21

MOA of caspofungin and micafungin?

inhibit synthesis of beta glucan; used for invasive aspergilossis and candida May cause flushing due to histamine release

22

Nifurtimox?

treats trypanosoma cruzi

22

MOA of macrolides?

blocks translocation by binding to the 23S rRNA-- macroslides

22

Antibiotic that causes aplastic anemia?

Chloramphenicol (blocks peptidyl transferase)

22

Causes ototoxicity during preg?

Aminoglycosides

24

Metronidazole MOA?

Damages DNA

24

Trypanosoma cruzi?

nifurtimox

25

Inhibits squalene epoxidase?

Terbinafine

26

Drug with high risk of seizures; only used in life threatening situations?

Carbapenems (Imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem)-- cn also get skin rash and GI distress

26

Causes a disulfiram like reaction with alcohol?

Metronidazole

27

MOA of macrolides?

Blocks 50S and protein synthesis by blocking translocation; thought to block peptidyl transferase

28

Patient is started on Isoniazid. How can she prevent neurotoxicity and lupus?

Pyridoxine b6

28

Treats dermatophytoses; what is side effect?

Terbinafine; may cause abnormal LFTs and visual disturbances

29

Toxicity and MOA of chloroquine

Retinopathy; blocks detoxification of heme into hemozoin

29

Oseltamivir?

Inhibits influenza neuraminidase

30

Clindamycin uses?

Anaerobes above the diaphragm (metronidazole is anaerobes below the diaphragm)

31

Meningococcal infection?

Cipro for adults; Rifampin for children

32

Blocks 50s from binding during ribosomal assembly?

Linezolide

33

Blocks DNA topoisomerase?

Fluoroquinolones

33

Syphilis

Penicillin G

33

Blocks mRNA synthesis?

Rifampin

34

3 Macrolides?

Azithromycin; calrithromycin; erythromycin

34

Cause tendon rupture, leg cramps and myalgias?

FluoroquinoLONES hurt attachments to your BONES; also cause GI upset, skin rashes, headache and dizziness

35

CD4 count of

TMP-SMX-- to prevent pneumocystis pneumonia

37

Fluoroquinolones?

everything that ends in "oxacin"; mostly floxacin (think ciprofloxacin)

37

Viral DNA polymerase inhibitor that binds pyrophosphate binding site of enzyme-- does not require viral kinase?

Foscarnet-- pyroFosphate analog

38

Inhibits influenza neuroaminidase?

Zanamivir and oseltamivir

39

Used to treat ringworm?

Girseoflvin; interferes with microtubule function; disrupts mitosis

39

Causes cartilage damage during pregnancy?

fluroquinolones

40

Antibiotic that causes discoloration of teeth?

Tetracycline

42

Beta lactamase inhibitors?

CAST-- Clavulanic Acid; Sulbactam; Tazobactem

42

Sulbactem and Tazobactem?

Beta lactamase inhibitors (CAST)

42

Side effect of Ribavirin?

Hemolytic anemia

43

CD4

Azithromycin (mycobacterium avium complex)

45

Extended spectrum penicillin?

Amoxicillin and ampicillin (amoxocillin has greater oral bioavailability)

46

suffix "penem"

carbapenems-- only used for life threatening cases due to inc risk for seizures (except for meropenem which has reduced risk of seizure)

47

Treatment of pneumocystis?

TMP-SMX; pentamidine

48

Clindamycin MOA?

Blocks peptide transfer

49

May cause pseudomembrouns colitis

Ampicillin or clindomycin

50

Chloramphenicol uses?

Meningitis (Haemophilus; Neisseria, Strep) in developing countries because of low cost; has lots of side effects including gray baby syndrome, aplastic anemia, anemia,

51

Drug for Borrelia?

Tetracycline and ceftriaxone

51

Treatment of legionella?

Macrolides

52

Bacitracin MOA?

Blocks peptidoglycan synthesis

52

Pt. presents with hearing difficulties, pain and swelling of arm, with diffuse flushing

Red man syndrome-- caused by VancomycinOtoxoticity, nephrotoxicity, thrombophlebitis, diffush

52

Treatment of leprosy?

Dapsone+ rifampine (first 6 months) + (clofazimine for 2-5 years)

53

Where is pyrainamide most effective?

In acidic pH of phagolysosomes, where TB engulfed by macrophages is found

54

Ceftazidime?

Used for pseudomonas; Cephalosporin

54

NNRTIs?

Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delavirdine, zidovudine, tenofovir

55

Treats anaerobic infections below the diaphragm?

Metronidazole

56

MOA of Sulfonamides?

PABA antimetabolites inhibit dihydropteroate synthase

57

Use of fluoroquinolones?

Mostly gram negative rods of urinary and gi tracts including pseudomonas

57

Uses of Acyclovir?

HSV and VZV-- no activity against EBV

58

Inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking?

Penicilin

61

Vancomycin MOA?

Blocks peptidoglycan synthesis

62

Have low cross reactivity with penicillin?

cephalosporin

62

Zanamivir?

Inhibits influenza neuroaminidase

64

Block peptidoglycan synthesis?

Bacitracin and vancomycin

65

Interferes with microtubule function; disrupts mitosis?

Girseofulvin; deposits in keratin containing tissues; used for superficial infections; tinea, ringworm

65

Integrase inhibitors?

Raltegravir

66

History of recurrent UTIs

TMP-SMX

68

Side effect of cephalosporins? 2

Vit K deficiency and increases nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides

69

Penicillinase resistant penicillins?

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin (due to bulky R group that blocks access of Beta lactamase)

70

Trimethoprim MOA?

Block nucleotide synthesis by inhibiting folic acid synthesis

70

4 drugs used for TB?

Ethambutol Pyrazinamide Rifampin Isoniazid

71

May cause red-green color blindness?

Ethambutol (used for TB)

73

drug for haemophilus and proteus?

ampicillin and amoxicillin HELPSS

74

Mean GNATS caNNOT kill anaerobes

AMEANOglycosides: gentamicin; neomycin; amikacin; tobramycin; streptomycin) and CAuse nephrotoxicity; neuromuscular blockade; otoxocity; teratogen Require O2 for uptake

75

Antifungal that causes bone marrow suppression?

Flucytosine

76

INH toxicity?

INH; Injures Neurons and Hepatocytes; Pyridoxine can prevent neurotoxicity

78

Do not take this antibiotic with Milk or iron containing products?

Tetracycline-- forms a divalent cation that cannot be absorbed by gut

78

Competitively inhibits IMP dehydrogenase leading to inhibition of guanine nucleotides?

Ribavirin

80

Treatment for simple UTI?

SMX

81

Treats toxoplasmosis?

Pyrimethamine

83

Always used with imipenem to decrease inactivation of drug in renal tubules?

Cilastatin

84

CD4 count of

TMP SMX-- to prevent pneumocystis and toxoplasmosis

86

Macrolide Toxicity

MACRO: Motility issues, Arrhythmias (Torsades), Cholestatic hepatitis, Rash, eOsinophilia

87

Tetracycline toxicities: 5

Discoloration of teeth; inhibition of bone growth in children; photosensitivity; GI--- also teratogenic

89

Used for meningitis and gonorrhea?

Ceftriaxone

90

Use for pseudomonas?

Ticarcillin/piparacillin--use with clavulanic acid AND Ceftazidime (celine has pseudomonas)

91

Patient presents with jaundice, fatigue, and upper left quadrant pain after being treated for an infection. Possible disease and medication?

Penicillin and Hemolyic anemia

92

Interferon toxicity?

Myopathy and neutropenia

93

increases nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides?

Cephalosporins

93

Aztreonam: MOA? and Use?

Monobactem that prevents peptidoglycan cross linking by binding to PBP3; and used for gram negative rods only; for people with renal insufficiency who cannot tolerate aminoglycosides and people who are allergic to penicillin-- is synergistic with aminoglycosides

93

Drug for M. pneumoniae?

Tetracycline

93

MOA of chloramphenicol?

Blocks peptidyl transferase at 50S

93

What does INH need in order to be converted to its active metabolite?

KatG

94

TB drug that causes hyperuricemia?

Pyrazinamide

95

Increases warfarin metabolism?

Griseofulvin

97

Antibiotic causes gray baby syndrome?

Chloramphenicol-- babies lack UDP glucuronyl transferase

98

MOA of INH?

decreases synthesis of mycolic acids; Bacterial catalase peroxidase (KatG)

99

Aminoglycosides

Gentamicin; neomycin; amikacin; tobramycin; streptomycin Inhibits initiation complex and causes misreading of mRNA

101

Block nucleotide synthesis by inhibiting folic acid synthesis?

Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim

103

May cause acute tubular necrosis?

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin)

104

MOA of chloromphenicol?

Block peptidyl transferase (50s)

105

MOA of ethambutol?

Used in TB; decrease carbohydrate polymerization of mycobacterium cell wall by blocking arabinosyltransferase

106

Chloroquine use?

Plasmodium other than falciparum

107

Prodrug of acyclovir?

Valacyclovir-- side effects are hallucinations and seizures

109

Linezolide MOA?

blocks initiation (blocks linitiation)

110

Inhibits viral dna polymerase-- does not require viral kinase?

Foscarnet and Cidofovir

112

Gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

114

Antibiotic that leaves metallic taste in mouth?

Metronidazole

115

How is ganciclovir activated?

5' monophosphate formed by CMV viral kinase Triphosphate formed by cellular kinases---- Both inhibit viral dna polymerase

117

Sulfonamides MOA?

Block nucleotide synthesis by inhibiting folic acid synthesis

119

Uses for ampicillin amoxicillin?

ampcillin/amoxicillin HELPSS kill; (Hinfluenza; E.coli; listeria; Proteus; salmonella; shigella) enterococci

119

Forms free radical toxic metabolites?

Metronidazole

121

Used for C. diff and multidrug resistant gram positives?

Vancomycin

123

Drug for Ecoli and lIsteria?

ampicillin/amoxicillin HELPSS

124

Causes CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients? and used for acyclovir resistant hsv?

Cidofovir

126

Amphotericin B: MOA? toxicity?

Binds ergosterol forming pores that allow leakage of electrolytes Fever/chills; hypotension; nephrotoxicity, arrhythmias, anemia, IV phlebitis; Liposomal amphotericin reduces toxicity

127

4 R's of Rifampin?

Rna polymerase inhibitor Revs up microsomal p450 Red/orange body fluids Rapid resistance if used alone

128

Macrolide uses?

Atypical pneumonia, STDs, gram positive cocci-- strep infections in patients allergic to penicillin

129

Can cause kernicterus?

Sulfanomides

131

Penicillin mostly used for?

Gram positive and N. meningitidis, Treponema and Syphilis

131

Vit K deficiency?

Cephalosporin

132

Blocks 30S ribosomal subunit?

Aminoglycoside and Tetracycline

133

Drug that causes pseudomembranous colitis?

Clindamycin

135

Trimethroprim toxicity?

TMP: Treats Marrow Poorly: megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia

136

Block 50S ribosomal subunit

Macrolides, Clindamycine, Streptogramins, linezolid, Chloramphenicol

138

Prevention of postsurgical infection due to S. aureus?

Cefazolin

138

Blocks detoxification of heme into hemozoin?

Chloroquine-- resistance due to membrane pump that decreases intracellular concentration of drug

140

Blocks A site preventing binding of aminoacyl tRNA?

Tetracyclines 30s d

141

Penicillin MOA?

Block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross linking-- by binding penicillin binding proteins (transpeptidases)

142

treatment of Vancomycin resistant bacteria?

Linezolid and streptogramins and tigecycline

143

Uses of Trimethoprim?

Pneumocystis, shigella, salmonella

144

Imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem

Carbapenem-- Beta lactamase resistant

145

Ribavirin?

Inhibits IMP dehydrogenase

146

Binds 23S rRNa of 50S ribosomal subunit?

Macrolides

147

MOA of Rifampin?

Inhibit DNA dependent RNA polymerase

149

NRTI used during pregnancy to reduce risk of HIV transmission?

ZDV-- zidovudine

150

Inhibit DNA gyrase?

Fluoroquinolones

152

Treats lung abscesses

Clindamycin

153

Prevents staph aureus wound infections prior to surgery?

Cefazolin-- 1st generation cephalosporin

154

ADH antagonist that is rarely used as an antibiotic

Demeclocycline-- used for SIADH; tetracycline (demeCLO will make you GO)

155

Metronidazole

forms free radical toxic metabolites

156

Used for candida?

Caspofungin or micafungin; may cause flushing due to histamine release

157

Pt treated for staph aureus. Possible drug toxicity of the drug used to treat her?

Oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin-- interstitial nephritis

157

Drug for Chlamydia?

Tetracycline

159

Inhibits DNA polymerase by chain termination?

Acyclovir-- needs to be phophorylated by thymidine kinase in order to work

160

Fluoroquinolones should not be taken with?

antacids

161

HIV drug that may cause hypercholesterolemia?

Raltegravir

162

Prevents peptidoglycan cross linking by binding to PBP3

Aztreonam

164

Tetracycline: MOA? Limits?

1) Bacteriostatic; binds to 30S and prevents attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA2) Limited CNS penetration3) Can be used in patients with renal failure--excreted fecally

165

Antiviral and antifungal that are teratogenic?

Griseofulvin and Ribavirin

166

Used for gram negative rods in patients who due to renal insufficiency cannot tolerate aminoglycosides or are penicillin allergic

Aztreonam

167

Treats leishmaniasis?

Sodium stibogluconate

168

Inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase?

Trimethroprim

169

Block peptidyl transferase at 50S?

Macrolides and Chloramphenicol

170

Interferes with proofreading process of translation, initiation, and translocation?

Aminoglycosides 30s

171

Blocks arabinosyltransferase?

Ethambutol

172

Used for oral candidiasis?

Nystatin (same as amphotericin B; topical form; too toxic to swallow)

173

Block peptidyl transferase?

Chloramphenicol

174

Gray baby?

Chloramphenicol

175

Terbinafine MOA?

Inhibits squalene reductase

176

Causes kernicterus during preg?

Sulfonamides

177

Azoles: MOA? Toxicity?

Inhibits ergosterol synthesis Blocks testosterone synthesis (gynecomastia); and liver dysfunction

178

Binds gp41

Enfuvirtide

179

Binds CCR5 and inhibits interaction with gp120

Mariviroc